2021-02-26 19:40:40

by Harshad Shirwadkar

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: [PATCH v3 0/5] Improve group scanning in CR 0 and CR 1 passes

ext4: improve cr 0 and cr 1 passes

This patch series improves cr 0 and cr 1 passes of the allocator
signficantly. Currently, at cr 0 and 1, we perform linear lookups to
find the matching groups. That's very inefficient for large file
systems where there are millions of block groups. At cr 0, we only
care about the groups that have the largest free order >= the
request's order and at cr 1 we only care about groups where average
fragment size > the request size. so, this patchset introduces new
data structures that allow us to perform cr 0 lookup in constant time
and cr 1 lookup in log (number of groups) time instead of linear.

For cr 0, we add a list for each order and all the groups are enqueued
to the appropriate list based on the largest free order in its buddy
bitmap. This allows us to lookup a match at cr 0 in constant time.

For cr 1, we add a new rb tree of groups sorted by largest fragment
size. This allows us to lookup a match for cr 1 in log (num groups)
time.

These optimizations can be enabled by passing "mb_optimize_scan" mount
option.

These changes may result in allocations to be spread across the block
device. While that would not matter some block devices (such as flash)
it may be a cause of concern for other block devices that benefit from
storing related content togetther such as disk. However, it can be
argued that in high fragmentation scenrio, especially for large disks,
it's still worth optimizing the scanning since in such cases, we get
cpu bound on group scanning instead of getting IO bound. Perhaps, in
future, we could dynamically turn this new optimization on based on
fragmentation levels for such devices.

Verified that there are no regressions in smoke tests (-g quick -c 4k).

Also, to demonstrate the effectiveness for the patch series, following
experiment was performed:

Created a highly fragmented disk of size 65TB. The disk had no
contiguous 2M regions. Following command was run consecutively for 3
times:

time dd if=/dev/urandom of=file bs=2M count=10

Here are the results with and without cr 0/1 optimizations:

|---------+------------------------------+---------------------------|
| | Without CR 0/1 Optimizations | With CR 0/1 Optimizations |
|---------+------------------------------+---------------------------|
| 1st run | 5m1.871s | 2m47.642s |
| 2nd run | 2m28.390s | 0m0.611s |
| 3rd run | 2m26.530s | 0m1.255s |
|---------+------------------------------+---------------------------|

The patch [2/5] "ext4: add mballoc stats proc file" is a modified
version of the patch originally written by Artem Blagodarenko
([email protected]). With that patch, I ran following
command with and without optimizations.

dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/file bs=2M count=2 conv=fsync

Without optimizations:
mballoc:
        reqs: 41
        success: 1
        groups_scanned: 63
        groups_considered: 20643620
        extents_scanned: 7851
                goal_hits: 0
                2^n_hits: 1
                breaks: 39
                lost: 0
        useless_c0_loops: 3
        useless_c1_loops: 39
        useless_c2_loops: 0
        useless_c3_loops: 0
        buddies_generated: 491561/491520
        buddies_time_used: 13078539152
        preallocated: 0
        discarded: 0

With optimizations:
mballoc:
        reqs: 42
        success: 1
        groups_scanned: 62
        groups_considered: 1011
        extents_scanned: 8062
                goal_hits: 0
                2^n_hits: 0
                breaks: 40
                lost: 0
        useless_c0_loops: 0
        useless_c1_loops: 0
        useless_c2_loops: 0
        useless_c3_loops: 0
        buddies_generated: 491561/491520
        buddies_time_used: 13165943648
        preallocated: 0
        discarded: 0

This shows that CR0 and CR1 optimizations get rid of useless CR0 and
CR1 loops altogether thereby significantly reducing the number of
groups that get considered.

Changes from V2:
----------------
- Added mb_linear_limit sysfs tunable that controls how many groups
should the allocator search in linear fashion before consulting the
the new data structures.
- Added following optimizations:
* Full groups are not added to either structures
* MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN is disabled for small file systems
- Updated documentation in the code
- Made output of mb_structs_summary output file to be YAML compatible
- Small fixes to change location of increment ac_groups_considered
variable and added missed MB_NUM_ORDERS macro

Signed-off-by: Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]>

Harshad Shirwadkar (5):
ext4: drop s_mb_bal_lock and convert protected fields to atomic
ext4: add mballoc stats proc file
ext4: add MB_NUM_ORDERS macro
ext4: improve cr 0 / cr 1 group scanning
ext4: add proc files to monitor new structures

fs/ext4/ext4.h | 24 +-
fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 541 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
fs/ext4/mballoc.h | 20 ++
fs/ext4/super.c | 6 +-
fs/ext4/sysfs.c | 6 +
5 files changed, 564 insertions(+), 33 deletions(-)

--
2.30.1.766.gb4fecdf3b7-goog


2021-02-26 19:41:08

by Harshad Shirwadkar

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: [PATCH v3 2/5] ext4: add mballoc stats proc file

Add new stats for measuring the performance of mballoc. This patch is
forked from Artem Blagodarenko's work that can be found here:

https://github.com/lustre/lustre-release/blob/master/ldiskfs/kernel_patches/patches/rhel8/ext4-simple-blockalloc.patch

Signed-off-by: Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]>
Reviewed-by: Andreas Dilger <[email protected]>
---
fs/ext4/ext4.h | 4 ++++
fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 51 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
fs/ext4/mballoc.h | 1 +
fs/ext4/sysfs.c | 2 ++
4 files changed, 57 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index cb0724b87d54..3e906a3d553a 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -1549,6 +1549,8 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
atomic_t s_bal_success; /* we found long enough chunks */
atomic_t s_bal_allocated; /* in blocks */
atomic_t s_bal_ex_scanned; /* total extents scanned */
+ atomic_t s_bal_groups_considered; /* number of groups considered */
+ atomic_t s_bal_groups_scanned; /* number of groups scanned */
atomic_t s_bal_goals; /* goal hits */
atomic_t s_bal_breaks; /* too long searches */
atomic_t s_bal_2orders; /* 2^order hits */
@@ -1558,6 +1560,7 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
atomic_t s_mb_preallocated;
atomic_t s_mb_discarded;
atomic_t s_lock_busy;
+ atomic64_t s_bal_cX_failed[4]; /* cX loop didn't find blocks */

/* locality groups */
struct ext4_locality_group __percpu *s_locality_groups;
@@ -2808,6 +2811,7 @@ int __init ext4_fc_init_dentry_cache(void);
extern const struct seq_operations ext4_mb_seq_groups_ops;
extern long ext4_mb_stats;
extern long ext4_mb_max_to_scan;
+extern int ext4_seq_mb_stats_show(struct seq_file *seq, void *offset);
extern int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *);
extern int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *);
extern ext4_fsblk_t ext4_mb_new_blocks(handle_t *,
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index 07b78a3cc421..92c4edaa1afc 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -2146,6 +2146,7 @@ static int ext4_mb_good_group_nolock(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
ext4_grpblk_t free;
int ret = 0;

+ ac->ac_groups_considered++;
if (should_lock)
ext4_lock_group(sb, group);
free = grp->bb_free;
@@ -2420,6 +2421,9 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
if (ac->ac_status != AC_STATUS_CONTINUE)
break;
}
+ /* Processed all groups and haven't found blocks */
+ if (sbi->s_mb_stats && i == ngroups)
+ atomic64_inc(&sbi->s_bal_cX_failed[cr]);
}

if (ac->ac_b_ex.fe_len > 0 && ac->ac_status != AC_STATUS_FOUND &&
@@ -2548,6 +2552,48 @@ const struct seq_operations ext4_mb_seq_groups_ops = {
.show = ext4_mb_seq_groups_show,
};

+int ext4_seq_mb_stats_show(struct seq_file *seq, void *offset)
+{
+ struct super_block *sb = (struct super_block *)seq->private;
+ struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
+
+ seq_puts(seq, "mballoc:\n");
+ if (!sbi->s_mb_stats) {
+ seq_puts(seq, "\tmb stats collection turned off.\n");
+ seq_puts(seq, "\tTo enable, please write \"1\" to sysfs file mb_stats.\n");
+ return 0;
+ }
+ seq_printf(seq, "\treqs: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_reqs));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tsuccess: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_success));
+
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tgroups_scanned: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_groups_scanned));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tgroups_considered: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_groups_considered));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\textents_scanned: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_ex_scanned));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\t\tgoal_hits: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_goals));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\t\t2^n_hits: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_2orders));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\t\tbreaks: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_breaks));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\t\tlost: %u\n", atomic_read(&sbi->s_mb_lost_chunks));
+
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tuseless_c0_loops: %llu\n",
+ (unsigned long long)atomic64_read(&sbi->s_bal_cX_failed[0]));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tuseless_c1_loops: %llu\n",
+ (unsigned long long)atomic64_read(&sbi->s_bal_cX_failed[1]));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tuseless_c2_loops: %llu\n",
+ (unsigned long long)atomic64_read(&sbi->s_bal_cX_failed[2]));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tuseless_c3_loops: %llu\n",
+ (unsigned long long)atomic64_read(&sbi->s_bal_cX_failed[3]));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tbuddies_generated: %u/%u\n",
+ atomic_read(&sbi->s_mb_buddies_generated),
+ ext4_get_groups_count(sb));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tbuddies_time_used: %llu\n",
+ atomic64_read(&sbi->s_mb_generation_time));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tpreallocated: %u\n",
+ atomic_read(&sbi->s_mb_preallocated));
+ seq_printf(seq, "\tdiscarded: %u\n",
+ atomic_read(&sbi->s_mb_discarded));
+ return 0;
+}
+
static struct kmem_cache *get_groupinfo_cache(int blocksize_bits)
{
int cache_index = blocksize_bits - EXT4_MIN_BLOCK_LOG_SIZE;
@@ -2968,9 +3014,10 @@ int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_reqs),
atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_success));
ext4_msg(sb, KERN_INFO,
- "mballoc: %u extents scanned, %u goal hits, "
+ "mballoc: %u extents scanned, %u groups scanned, %u goal hits, "
"%u 2^N hits, %u breaks, %u lost",
atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_ex_scanned),
+ atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_groups_scanned),
atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_goals),
atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_2orders),
atomic_read(&sbi->s_bal_breaks),
@@ -3579,6 +3626,8 @@ static void ext4_mb_collect_stats(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
if (ac->ac_b_ex.fe_len >= ac->ac_o_ex.fe_len)
atomic_inc(&sbi->s_bal_success);
atomic_add(ac->ac_found, &sbi->s_bal_ex_scanned);
+ atomic_add(ac->ac_groups_scanned, &sbi->s_bal_groups_scanned);
+ atomic_add(ac->ac_groups_considered, &sbi->s_bal_groups_considered);
if (ac->ac_g_ex.fe_start == ac->ac_b_ex.fe_start &&
ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group == ac->ac_b_ex.fe_group)
atomic_inc(&sbi->s_bal_goals);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
index e75b4749aa1c..7597330dbdf8 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
@@ -161,6 +161,7 @@ struct ext4_allocation_context {
/* copy of the best found extent taken before preallocation efforts */
struct ext4_free_extent ac_f_ex;

+ __u32 ac_groups_considered;
__u16 ac_groups_scanned;
__u16 ac_found;
__u16 ac_tail;
diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
index 075aa3a19ff5..59ca9d73b42f 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
@@ -521,6 +521,8 @@ int ext4_register_sysfs(struct super_block *sb)
ext4_fc_info_show, sb);
proc_create_seq_data("mb_groups", S_IRUGO, sbi->s_proc,
&ext4_mb_seq_groups_ops, sb);
+ proc_create_single_data("mb_stats", 0444, sbi->s_proc,
+ ext4_seq_mb_stats_show, sb);
}
return 0;
}
--
2.30.1.766.gb4fecdf3b7-goog

2021-02-26 19:41:09

by Harshad Shirwadkar

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: [PATCH v3 4/5] ext4: improve cr 0 / cr 1 group scanning

Instead of traversing through groups linearly, scan groups in specific
orders at cr 0 and cr 1. At cr 0, we want to find groups that have the
largest free order >= the order of the request. So, with this patch,
we maintain lists for each possible order and insert each group into a
list based on the largest free order in its buddy bitmap. During cr 0
allocation, we traverse these lists in the increasing order of largest
free orders. This allows us to find a group with the best available cr
0 match in constant time. If nothing can be found, we fallback to cr 1
immediately.

At CR1, the story is slightly different. We want to traverse in the
order of increasing average fragment size. For CR1, we maintain a rb
tree of groupinfos which is sorted by average fragment size. Instead
of traversing linearly, at CR1, we traverse in the order of increasing
average fragment size, starting at the most optimal group. This brings
down cr 1 search complexity to log(num groups).

For cr >= 2, we just perform the linear search as before. Also, in
case of lock contention, we intermittently fallback to linear search
even in CR 0 and CR 1 cases. This allows us to proceed during the
allocation path even in case of high contention.

There is an opportunity to do optimization at CR2 too. That's because
at CR2 we only consider groups where bb_free counter (number of free
blocks) is greater than the request extent size. That's left as future
work.

All the changes introduced in this patch are protected under a new
mount option "mb_optimize_scan".

Signed-off-by: Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]>
Reported-by: kernel test robot <[email protected]>
Reported-by: Dan Carpenter <[email protected]>
---
fs/ext4/ext4.h | 14 +-
fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 374 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
fs/ext4/mballoc.h | 14 ++
fs/ext4/super.c | 6 +-
fs/ext4/sysfs.c | 2 +
5 files changed, 397 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
index 3e906a3d553a..d792418c39ca 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
@@ -162,6 +162,8 @@ enum SHIFT_DIRECTION {
#define EXT4_MB_USE_RESERVED 0x2000
/* Do strict check for free blocks while retrying block allocation */
#define EXT4_MB_STRICT_CHECK 0x4000
+/* Avg fragment size rb tree lookup succeeded at least once for cr = 1 */
+#define EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED 0x8000

struct ext4_allocation_request {
/* target inode for block we're allocating */
@@ -1247,7 +1249,9 @@ struct ext4_inode_info {
#define EXT4_MOUNT2_JOURNAL_FAST_COMMIT 0x00000010 /* Journal fast commit */
#define EXT4_MOUNT2_DAX_NEVER 0x00000020 /* Do not allow Direct Access */
#define EXT4_MOUNT2_DAX_INODE 0x00000040 /* For printing options only */
-
+#define EXT4_MOUNT2_MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN 0x00000080 /* Optimize group
+ * scanning in mballoc
+ */

#define clear_opt(sb, opt) EXT4_SB(sb)->s_mount_opt &= \
~EXT4_MOUNT_##opt
@@ -1527,9 +1531,14 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
unsigned int s_mb_free_pending;
struct list_head s_freed_data_list; /* List of blocks to be freed
after commit completed */
+ struct rb_root s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root;
+ rwlock_t s_mb_rb_lock;
+ struct list_head *s_mb_largest_free_orders;
+ rwlock_t *s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks;

/* tunables */
unsigned long s_stripe;
+ unsigned int s_mb_linear_limit;
unsigned int s_mb_stream_request;
unsigned int s_mb_max_to_scan;
unsigned int s_mb_min_to_scan;
@@ -3308,11 +3317,14 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
ext4_grpblk_t bb_free; /* total free blocks */
ext4_grpblk_t bb_fragments; /* nr of freespace fragments */
ext4_grpblk_t bb_largest_free_order;/* order of largest frag in BG */
+ ext4_group_t bb_group; /* Group number */
struct list_head bb_prealloc_list;
#ifdef DOUBLE_CHECK
void *bb_bitmap;
#endif
struct rw_semaphore alloc_sem;
+ struct rb_node bb_avg_fragment_size_rb;
+ struct list_head bb_largest_free_order_node;
ext4_grpblk_t bb_counters[]; /* Nr of free power-of-two-block
* regions, index is order.
* bb_counters[3] = 5 means
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
index 161412070fef..bcfd849bc61e 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
@@ -127,11 +127,50 @@
* smallest multiple of the stripe value (sbi->s_stripe) which is
* greater than the default mb_group_prealloc.
*
+ * If "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is set, we maintain in memory group info
+ * structures in two data structures:
+ *
+ * 1) Array of largest free order lists (sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders)
+ *
+ * Locking: sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks(array of rw locks)
+ *
+ * This is an array of lists where the index in the array represents the
+ * largest free order in the buddy bitmap of the participating group infos of
+ * that list. So, there are exactly MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) (which means total
+ * number of buddy bitmap orders possible) number of lists. Group-infos are
+ * placed in appropriate lists.
+ *
+ * 2) Average fragment size rb tree (sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root)
+ *
+ * Locking: sbi->s_mb_rb_lock (rwlock)
+ *
+ * This is a red black tree consisting of group infos and the tree is sorted
+ * by average fragment sizes (which is calculated as ext4_group_info->bb_free
+ * / ext4_group_info->bb_fragments).
+ *
+ * When "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is set, mballoc consults the above data
+ * structures to decide the order in which groups are to be traversed for
+ * fulfilling an allocation request.
+ *
+ * At CR = 0, we look for groups which have the largest_free_order >= the order
+ * of the request. We directly look at the largest free order list in the data
+ * structure (1) above where largest_free_order = order of the request. If that
+ * list is empty, we look at remaining list in the increasing order of
+ * largest_free_order. This allows us to perform CR = 0 lookup in O(1) time.
+ *
+ * At CR = 1, we only consider groups where average fragment size > request
+ * size. So, we lookup a group which has average fragment size just above or
+ * equal to request size using our rb tree (data structure 2) in O(log N) time.
+ *
+ * If "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is not set, mballoc traverses groups in
+ * linear order which requires O(N) search time for each CR 0 and CR 1 phase.
+ *
* The regular allocator (using the buddy cache) supports a few tunables.
*
* /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_min_to_scan
* /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_max_to_scan
* /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_order2_req
+ * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_linear_limit
*
* The regular allocator uses buddy scan only if the request len is power of
* 2 blocks and the order of allocation is >= sbi->s_mb_order2_reqs. The
@@ -149,6 +188,16 @@
* can be used for allocation. ext4_mb_good_group explains how the groups are
* checked.
*
+ * When "mb_optimize_scan" is turned on, as mentioned above, the groups may not
+ * get traversed linearly. That may result in subsequent allocations being not
+ * close to each other. And so, the underlying device may get filled up in a
+ * non-linear fashion. While that may not matter on non-rotational devices, for
+ * rotational devices that may result in higher seek times. "mb_linear_limit"
+ * tells mballoc how many groups mballoc should search linearly before
+ * performing consulting above data structures for more efficient lookups. For
+ * non rotational devices, this value defaults to 0 and for rotational devices
+ * this is set to MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT.
+ *
* Both the prealloc space are getting populated as above. So for the first
* request we will hit the buddy cache which will result in this prealloc
* space getting filled. The prealloc space is then later used for the
@@ -299,6 +348,8 @@
* - bitlock on a group (group)
* - object (inode/locality) (object)
* - per-pa lock (pa)
+ * - cr0 lists lock (cr0)
+ * - cr1 tree lock (cr1)
*
* Paths:
* - new pa
@@ -328,6 +379,9 @@
* group
* object
*
+ * - allocation path (ext4_mb_regular_allocator)
+ * group
+ * cr0/cr1
*/
static struct kmem_cache *ext4_pspace_cachep;
static struct kmem_cache *ext4_ac_cachep;
@@ -351,6 +405,9 @@ static void ext4_mb_generate_from_freelist(struct super_block *sb, void *bitmap,
ext4_group_t group);
static void ext4_mb_new_preallocation(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac);

+static bool ext4_mb_good_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
+ ext4_group_t group, int cr);
+
/*
* The algorithm using this percpu seq counter goes below:
* 1. We sample the percpu discard_pa_seq counter before trying for block
@@ -744,6 +801,243 @@ static void ext4_mb_mark_free_simple(struct super_block *sb,
}
}

+static void ext4_mb_rb_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct rb_node *new,
+ int (*cmp)(struct rb_node *, struct rb_node *))
+{
+ struct rb_node **iter = &root->rb_node, *parent = NULL;
+
+ while (*iter) {
+ parent = *iter;
+ if (cmp(new, *iter))
+ iter = &((*iter)->rb_left);
+ else
+ iter = &((*iter)->rb_right);
+ }
+
+ rb_link_node(new, parent, iter);
+ rb_insert_color(new, root);
+}
+
+static int
+ext4_mb_avg_fragment_size_cmp(struct rb_node *rb1, struct rb_node *rb2)
+{
+ struct ext4_group_info *grp1 = rb_entry(rb1,
+ struct ext4_group_info,
+ bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
+ struct ext4_group_info *grp2 = rb_entry(rb2,
+ struct ext4_group_info,
+ bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
+ int num_frags_1, num_frags_2;
+
+ num_frags_1 = grp1->bb_fragments ?
+ grp1->bb_free / grp1->bb_fragments : 0;
+ num_frags_2 = grp2->bb_fragments ?
+ grp2->bb_free / grp2->bb_fragments : 0;
+
+ return (num_frags_1 < num_frags_2);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Reinsert grpinfo into the avg_fragment_size tree with new average
+ * fragment size.
+ */
+static void
+mb_update_avg_fragment_size(struct super_block *sb, struct ext4_group_info *grp)
+{
+ struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
+
+ if (!test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) || grp->bb_free == 0)
+ return;
+
+ write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
+ if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb)) {
+ rb_erase(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb,
+ &sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root);
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
+ }
+
+ ext4_mb_rb_insert(&sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root,
+ &grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb,
+ ext4_mb_avg_fragment_size_cmp);
+ write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Choose next group by traversing largest_free_order lists. Return 0 if next
+ * group was selected optimally. Return 1 if next group was not selected
+ * optimally. Updates *new_cr if cr level needs an update.
+ */
+static int ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr0(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
+ int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
+{
+ struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
+ struct ext4_group_info *iter, *grp;
+ int i;
+
+ if (ac->ac_status == AC_STATUS_FOUND)
+ return 1;
+
+ grp = NULL;
+ for (i = ac->ac_2order; i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(ac->ac_sb); i++) {
+ if (list_empty(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i]))
+ continue;
+ read_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
+ if (list_empty(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i])) {
+ read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
+ continue;
+ }
+ grp = NULL;
+ list_for_each_entry(iter, &sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i],
+ bb_largest_free_order_node) {
+ ac->ac_groups_considered++;
+ if (likely(ext4_mb_good_group(ac, iter->bb_group, 0))) {
+ grp = iter;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
+ if (grp)
+ break;
+ }
+
+ if (!grp) {
+ /* Increment cr and search again */
+ *new_cr = 1;
+ } else {
+ *group = grp->bb_group;
+ ac->ac_last_optimal_group = *group;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Choose next group by traversing average fragment size tree. Return 0 if next
+ * group was selected optimally. Return 1 if next group could not selected
+ * optimally (due to lock contention). Updates *new_cr if cr lvel needs an
+ * update.
+ */
+static int ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr1(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
+ int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
+{
+ struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
+ int avg_fragment_size, best_so_far;
+ struct rb_node *node, *found;
+ struct ext4_group_info *grp;
+
+ /*
+ * If there is contention on the lock, instead of waiting for the lock
+ * to become available, just continue searching lineraly. We'll resume
+ * our rb tree search later starting at ac->ac_last_optimal_group.
+ */
+ if (!read_trylock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock))
+ return 1;
+
+ if (ac->ac_flags & EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED) {
+ /* We have found something at CR 1 in the past */
+ grp = ext4_get_group_info(ac->ac_sb, ac->ac_last_optimal_group);
+ for (found = rb_next(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb); found != NULL;
+ found = rb_next(found)) {
+ grp = rb_entry(found, struct ext4_group_info,
+ bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
+ ac->ac_groups_considered++;
+ if (likely(ext4_mb_good_group(ac, grp->bb_group, 1)))
+ break;
+ }
+
+ goto done;
+ }
+
+ node = sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root.rb_node;
+ best_so_far = 0;
+ found = NULL;
+
+ while (node) {
+ grp = rb_entry(node, struct ext4_group_info,
+ bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
+ avg_fragment_size = 0;
+ /*
+ * Perform this check without locking, we'll lock later to confirm.
+ */
+ if (ext4_mb_good_group(ac, grp->bb_group, 1)) {
+ avg_fragment_size = grp->bb_fragments ?
+ grp->bb_free / grp->bb_fragments : 0;
+ if (!best_so_far || avg_fragment_size < best_so_far) {
+ best_so_far = avg_fragment_size;
+ found = node;
+ }
+ }
+ if (avg_fragment_size > ac->ac_g_ex.fe_len)
+ node = node->rb_right;
+ else
+ node = node->rb_left;
+ }
+
+done:
+ if (found) {
+ grp = rb_entry(found, struct ext4_group_info,
+ bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
+ *group = grp->bb_group;
+ ac->ac_flags |= EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED;
+ } else {
+ *new_cr = 2;
+ }
+
+ read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
+ ac->ac_last_optimal_group = *group;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * ext4_mb_choose_next_group: choose next group for allocation.
+ *
+ * @ac Allocation Context
+ * @new_cr This is an output parameter. If the there is no good group available
+ * at current CR level, this field is updated to indicate the new cr
+ * level that should be used.
+ * @group This is an input / output parameter. As an input it indicates the last
+ * group used for allocation. As output, this field indicates the
+ * next group that should be used.
+ * @ngroups Total number of groups
+ */
+static void ext4_mb_choose_next_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
+ int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
+{
+ int ret;
+
+ *new_cr = ac->ac_criteria;
+
+ if (!test_opt2(ac->ac_sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) ||
+ *new_cr >= 2 ||
+ !ext4_test_inode_flag(ac->ac_inode, EXT4_INODE_EXTENTS))
+ goto inc_and_return;
+
+ if (ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining) {
+ ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining--;
+ goto inc_and_return;
+ }
+
+ if (*new_cr == 0) {
+ ret = ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr0(ac, new_cr, group, ngroups);
+ if (ret)
+ goto inc_and_return;
+ }
+ if (*new_cr == 1) {
+ ret = ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr1(ac, new_cr, group, ngroups);
+ if (ret)
+ goto inc_and_return;
+ }
+ return;
+
+inc_and_return:
+ /*
+ * Artificially restricted ngroups for non-extent
+ * files makes group > ngroups possible on first loop.
+ */
+ *group = *group + 1;
+ if (*group >= ngroups)
+ *group = 0;
+}
+
/*
* Cache the order of the largest free extent we have available in this block
* group.
@@ -751,18 +1045,33 @@ static void ext4_mb_mark_free_simple(struct super_block *sb,
static void
mb_set_largest_free_order(struct super_block *sb, struct ext4_group_info *grp)
{
+ struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
int i;
- int bits;

+ if (test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) && grp->bb_largest_free_order >= 0) {
+ write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
+ grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
+ list_del_init(&grp->bb_largest_free_order_node);
+ write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
+ grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
+ }
grp->bb_largest_free_order = -1; /* uninit */

- bits = MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) - 1;
- for (i = bits; i >= 0; i--) {
+ for (i = MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
if (grp->bb_counters[i] > 0) {
grp->bb_largest_free_order = i;
break;
}
}
+ if (test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) &&
+ grp->bb_largest_free_order >= 0 && grp->bb_free) {
+ write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
+ grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
+ list_add_tail(&grp->bb_largest_free_order_node,
+ &sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
+ write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
+ grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
+ }
}

static noinline_for_stack
@@ -818,6 +1127,7 @@ void ext4_mb_generate_buddy(struct super_block *sb,
period = get_cycles() - period;
atomic_inc(&sbi->s_mb_buddies_generated);
atomic64_add(period, &sbi->s_mb_generation_time);
+ mb_update_avg_fragment_size(sb, grp);
}

/* The buddy information is attached the buddy cache inode
@@ -1517,6 +1827,7 @@ static void mb_free_blocks(struct inode *inode, struct ext4_buddy *e4b,

done:
mb_set_largest_free_order(sb, e4b->bd_info);
+ mb_update_avg_fragment_size(sb, e4b->bd_info);
mb_check_buddy(e4b);
}

@@ -1653,6 +1964,7 @@ static int mb_mark_used(struct ext4_buddy *e4b, struct ext4_free_extent *ex)
}
mb_set_largest_free_order(e4b->bd_sb, e4b->bd_info);

+ mb_update_avg_fragment_size(e4b->bd_sb, e4b->bd_info);
ext4_set_bits(e4b->bd_bitmap, ex->fe_start, len0);
mb_check_buddy(e4b);

@@ -2346,17 +2658,21 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
* from the goal value specified
*/
group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
+ ac->ac_last_optimal_group = group;
+ ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining = sbi->s_mb_linear_limit;
prefetch_grp = group;

- for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
- int ret = 0;
+ for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
+ int ret = 0, new_cr;
+
cond_resched();
- /*
- * Artificially restricted ngroups for non-extent
- * files makes group > ngroups possible on first loop.
- */
- if (group >= ngroups)
- group = 0;
+
+ ext4_mb_choose_next_group(ac, &new_cr, &group, ngroups);
+
+ if (new_cr != cr) {
+ cr = new_cr;
+ goto repeat;
+ }

/*
* Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
@@ -2696,7 +3012,10 @@ int ext4_mb_add_groupinfo(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_prealloc_list);
init_rwsem(&meta_group_info[i]->alloc_sem);
meta_group_info[i]->bb_free_root = RB_ROOT;
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_largest_free_order_node);
+ RB_CLEAR_NODE(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
meta_group_info[i]->bb_largest_free_order = -1; /* uninit */
+ meta_group_info[i]->bb_group = group;

mb_group_bb_bitmap_alloc(sb, meta_group_info[i], group);
return 0;
@@ -2886,6 +3205,22 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
i++;
} while (i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb));

+ sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root = RB_ROOT;
+ sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders =
+ kmalloc_array(MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb), sizeof(struct list_head),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders)
+ goto out;
+ sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks =
+ kmalloc_array(MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb), sizeof(rwlock_t),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks)
+ goto out;
+ for (i = 0; i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb); i++) {
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i]);
+ rwlock_init(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
+ }
+ rwlock_init(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);

spin_lock_init(&sbi->s_md_lock);
sbi->s_mb_free_pending = 0;
@@ -2938,6 +3273,20 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
spin_lock_init(&lg->lg_prealloc_lock);
}

+ if (blk_queue_nonrot(bdev_get_queue(sb->s_bdev)))
+ sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = 0;
+ else
+ sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT;
+#ifndef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
+ /*
+ * Disable mb_optimize scan if we don't have enough groups. If
+ * CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG is set, we don't disable this MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN even
+ * for small file systems. This allows us to test correctness on small
+ * file systems.
+ */
+ if (ext4_get_groups_count(sb) < MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD)
+ clear_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN);
+#endif
/* init file for buddy data */
ret = ext4_mb_init_backend(sb);
if (ret != 0)
@@ -2949,6 +3298,8 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
free_percpu(sbi->s_locality_groups);
sbi->s_locality_groups = NULL;
out:
+ kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders);
+ kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks);
kfree(sbi->s_mb_offsets);
sbi->s_mb_offsets = NULL;
kfree(sbi->s_mb_maxs);
@@ -3005,6 +3356,7 @@ int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
kvfree(group_info);
rcu_read_unlock();
}
+ kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders);
kfree(sbi->s_mb_offsets);
kfree(sbi->s_mb_maxs);
iput(sbi->s_buddy_cache);
diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
index 02861406932f..5c0275f832a0 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
+++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
@@ -78,6 +78,18 @@
*/
#define MB_DEFAULT_MAX_INODE_PREALLOC 512

+/*
+ * Number of groups to search linearly before performing group scanning
+ * optimization.
+ */
+#define MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT 4
+
+/*
+ * Minimum number of groups that should be present in the file system to perform
+ * group scanning optimizations.
+ */
+#define MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD 16
+
/*
* Number of valid buddy orders
*/
@@ -166,8 +178,10 @@ struct ext4_allocation_context {
/* copy of the best found extent taken before preallocation efforts */
struct ext4_free_extent ac_f_ex;

+ ext4_group_t ac_last_optimal_group;
__u32 ac_groups_considered;
__u16 ac_groups_scanned;
+ __u16 ac_groups_linear_remaining;
__u16 ac_found;
__u16 ac_tail;
__u16 ac_buddy;
diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
index 071d131fadd8..aa92d3ebe13d 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/super.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
@@ -154,6 +154,7 @@ static inline void __ext4_read_bh(struct buffer_head *bh, int op_flags,
clear_buffer_verified(bh);

bh->b_end_io = end_io ? end_io : end_buffer_read_sync;
+
get_bh(bh);
submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, op_flags, bh);
}
@@ -1687,7 +1688,7 @@ enum {
Opt_dioread_nolock, Opt_dioread_lock,
Opt_discard, Opt_nodiscard, Opt_init_itable, Opt_noinit_itable,
Opt_max_dir_size_kb, Opt_nojournal_checksum, Opt_nombcache,
- Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps,
+ Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, Opt_mb_optimize_scan,
#ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
Opt_fc_debug_max_replay, Opt_fc_debug_force
#endif
@@ -1788,6 +1789,7 @@ static const match_table_t tokens = {
{Opt_nombcache, "nombcache"},
{Opt_nombcache, "no_mbcache"}, /* for backward compatibility */
{Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, "prefetch_block_bitmaps"},
+ {Opt_mb_optimize_scan, "mb_optimize_scan"},
{Opt_removed, "check=none"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
{Opt_removed, "nocheck"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
{Opt_removed, "reservation"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
@@ -2008,6 +2010,8 @@ static const struct mount_opts {
{Opt_nombcache, EXT4_MOUNT_NO_MBCACHE, MOPT_SET},
{Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS,
MOPT_SET},
+ {Opt_mb_optimize_scan, EXT4_MOUNT2_MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN,
+ MOPT_SET | MOPT_2 | MOPT_EXT4_ONLY},
#ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
{Opt_fc_debug_force, EXT4_MOUNT2_JOURNAL_FAST_COMMIT,
MOPT_SET | MOPT_2 | MOPT_EXT4_ONLY},
diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
index 59ca9d73b42f..16b8a838f631 100644
--- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
+++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
@@ -213,6 +213,7 @@ EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_order2_req, s_mb_order2_reqs);
EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_stream_req, s_mb_stream_request);
EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_group_prealloc, s_mb_group_prealloc);
EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_max_inode_prealloc, s_mb_max_inode_prealloc);
+EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_linear_limit, s_mb_linear_limit);
EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(extent_max_zeroout_kb, s_extent_max_zeroout_kb);
EXT4_ATTR(trigger_fs_error, 0200, trigger_test_error);
EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(err_ratelimit_interval_ms, s_err_ratelimit_state.interval);
@@ -260,6 +261,7 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
ATTR_LIST(mb_stream_req),
ATTR_LIST(mb_group_prealloc),
ATTR_LIST(mb_max_inode_prealloc),
+ ATTR_LIST(mb_linear_limit),
ATTR_LIST(max_writeback_mb_bump),
ATTR_LIST(extent_max_zeroout_kb),
ATTR_LIST(trigger_fs_error),
--
2.30.1.766.gb4fecdf3b7-goog

2021-03-01 22:29:30

by Andreas Dilger

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 4/5] ext4: improve cr 0 / cr 1 group scanning

On Feb 26, 2021, at 12:36 PM, Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]> wrote:
> Instead of traversing through groups linearly, scan groups in specific
> orders at cr 0 and cr 1. At cr 0, we want to find groups that have the
> largest free order >= the order of the request. So, with this patch,
> we maintain lists for each possible order and insert each group into a
> list based on the largest free order in its buddy bitmap. During cr 0
> allocation, we traverse these lists in the increasing order of largest
> free orders. This allows us to find a group with the best available cr
> 0 match in constant time. If nothing can be found, we fallback to cr 1
> immediately.

Thanks for the updated patch, I think it looks pretty good, with a
few suggestions.

> At CR1, the story is slightly different. We want to traverse in the
> order of increasing average fragment size. For CR1, we maintain a rb
> tree of groupinfos which is sorted by average fragment size. Instead
> of traversing linearly, at CR1, we traverse in the order of increasing
> average fragment size, starting at the most optimal group. This brings
> down cr 1 search complexity to log(num groups).

One thing that came to mind here is that *average* fragment size is
not necessarily a good heuristic for allocation. Consider a group with
mean fragment size of 2MB, made up of equal parts 4MB and 4KB free
blocks. If looking for many 2MB allocations this would quickly cause
the 4MB chunks to be split (pushing down the average below 2MB) even
when there are *exactly* 2MB free chunks available in that group.

Another alternative (short of having a full "free extents" tree like
XFS does) would be to keep the rbtree sorted by *maximum* fragment
size. That would not be any more expensive (one entry per group)
and guarantee that at least one free extent closely matches the size
of the extent being allocated. I _suspect_ that the cr1 allocations
are mostly for smaller files/tails that are not power-of-two sizes
(which would normally be handled by cr0 except in pathological test
cases), so finding an exact match is the right thing to do.

In that case, the cr0 pass would handle most of the file's data, and
cr1 would handle smaller files or the tail that are not 2^n extents.
Filling (nearly) exact fragments would be good for space efficiency,
and avoid fragmenting larger extents when that is not needed.

That said, I'm not confident enough about this to suggest that this
has to be changed before landing the patch, just an observation that
came to mind. Having a good workload simulator (or actual application
benchmark) would be needed to assess the difference here, since a
synthetic workload (e.g. fill alternate 2MB chunks) is not reflective
of how the filesystem would be used in real life.

A few minor comments inline...

> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> index 161412070fef..bcfd849bc61e 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
>
> +/*
> + * ext4_mb_choose_next_group: choose next group for allocation.
> + *
> + * @ac Allocation Context
> + * @new_cr This is an output parameter. If the there is no good group available
> + * at current CR level, this field is updated to indicate the new cr
> + * level that should be used.
> + * @group This is an input / output parameter. As an input it indicates the last
> + * group used for allocation. As output, this field indicates the
> + * next group that should be used.

No reason why these comments can't be wrapped at 80 columns

> @@ -2938,6 +3273,20 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> spin_lock_init(&lg->lg_prealloc_lock);
> }
>
> + if (blk_queue_nonrot(bdev_get_queue(sb->s_bdev)))
> + sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = 0;
> + else
> + sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT;
> +#ifndef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> + /*
> + * Disable mb_optimize scan if we don't have enough groups. If
> + * CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG is set, we don't disable this MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN even
> + * for small file systems. This allows us to test correctness on small
> + * file systems.
> + */
> + if (ext4_get_groups_count(sb) < MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD)
> + clear_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN);
> +#endif

Making this a compile-time option makes it much harder to test. Having this
managed by the /proc mb_linear_scan tunable or mount option would be useful.

Cheers, Andreas






Attachments:
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Message signed with OpenPGP

2021-03-04 07:25:57

by Andreas Dilger

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 4/5] ext4: improve cr 0 / cr 1 group scanning

On Mar 1, 2021, at 6:53 PM, harshad shirwadkar <[email protected]> wrote:
>
> Thanks for the review! Some comments inlined:
>
> On Mon, Mar 1, 2021 at 2:22 PM Andreas Dilger <[email protected]> wrote:
> >
> > On Feb 26, 2021, at 12:36 PM, Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]> wrote:
> > > Instead of traversing through groups linearly, scan groups in specific
> > > orders at cr 0 and cr 1. At cr 0, we want to find groups that have the
> > > largest free order >= the order of the request. So, with this patch,
> > > we maintain lists for each possible order and insert each group into a
> > > list based on the largest free order in its buddy bitmap. During cr 0
> > > allocation, we traverse these lists in the increasing order of largest
> > > free orders. This allows us to find a group with the best available cr
> > > 0 match in constant time. If nothing can be found, we fallback to cr 1
> > > immediately.
> >
> > Thanks for the updated patch, I think it looks pretty good, with a
> > few suggestions.

Two other things that I wanted to mention in my previous email:

- whether this code should be enabled by default? I think yes, because
it is very unlikely that normal users will know this optimization
exists, and the code will be dead for them, as they continue to suffer
with long scan times. If we think it is not a win to use with smaller
filesystems, then MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT could be increased to where
it *is* a win (e.g. 1TB = 8192 groups).
- rather than having mb_optimize_scan disabled for small filesystems at
compile time, it would make more sense to allow mb_optimze_scan=N as
a mount option to specify whether the feature is enabled or not. If
unset, then filesystems over MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD would
be enabled by default, but if =0 it is disabled, and =1 it is enabled
(regardless of filesystem size).

Cheers, Andreas






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2021-03-04 09:46:36

by Artem Blagodarenko

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 4/5] ext4: improve cr 0 / cr 1 group scanning

Hello Harshad,

Thank you for the new patchset. Everything looks good for me.
One comment below.

> On 26 Feb 2021, at 22:36, Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]> wrote:
>
> Instead of traversing through groups linearly, scan groups in specific
> orders at cr 0 and cr 1. At cr 0, we want to find groups that have the
> largest free order >= the order of the request. So, with this patch,
> we maintain lists for each possible order and insert each group into a
> list based on the largest free order in its buddy bitmap. During cr 0
> allocation, we traverse these lists in the increasing order of largest
> free orders. This allows us to find a group with the best available cr
> 0 match in constant time. If nothing can be found, we fallback to cr 1
> immediately.
>
> At CR1, the story is slightly different. We want to traverse in the
> order of increasing average fragment size. For CR1, we maintain a rb
> tree of groupinfos which is sorted by average fragment size. Instead
> of traversing linearly, at CR1, we traverse in the order of increasing
> average fragment size, starting at the most optimal group. This brings
> down cr 1 search complexity to log(num groups).
>
> For cr >= 2, we just perform the linear search as before. Also, in
> case of lock contention, we intermittently fallback to linear search
> even in CR 0 and CR 1 cases. This allows us to proceed during the
> allocation path even in case of high contention.
>
> There is an opportunity to do optimization at CR2 too. That's because
> at CR2 we only consider groups where bb_free counter (number of free
> blocks) is greater than the request extent size. That's left as future
> work.
>
> All the changes introduced in this patch are protected under a new
> mount option "mb_optimize_scan".
>
> Signed-off-by: Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]>
> Reported-by: kernel test robot <[email protected]>
> Reported-by: Dan Carpenter <[email protected]>
> ---
> fs/ext4/ext4.h | 14 +-
> fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 374 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> fs/ext4/mballoc.h | 14 ++
> fs/ext4/super.c | 6 +-
> fs/ext4/sysfs.c | 2 +
> 5 files changed, 397 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> index 3e906a3d553a..d792418c39ca 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> +++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> @@ -162,6 +162,8 @@ enum SHIFT_DIRECTION {
> #define EXT4_MB_USE_RESERVED 0x2000
> /* Do strict check for free blocks while retrying block allocation */
> #define EXT4_MB_STRICT_CHECK 0x4000
> +/* Avg fragment size rb tree lookup succeeded at least once for cr = 1 */
> +#define EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED 0x8000
>
> struct ext4_allocation_request {
> /* target inode for block we're allocating */
> @@ -1247,7 +1249,9 @@ struct ext4_inode_info {
> #define EXT4_MOUNT2_JOURNAL_FAST_COMMIT 0x00000010 /* Journal fast commit */
> #define EXT4_MOUNT2_DAX_NEVER 0x00000020 /* Do not allow Direct Access */
> #define EXT4_MOUNT2_DAX_INODE 0x00000040 /* For printing options only */
> -
> +#define EXT4_MOUNT2_MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN 0x00000080 /* Optimize group
> + * scanning in mballoc
> + */
>
> #define clear_opt(sb, opt) EXT4_SB(sb)->s_mount_opt &= \
> ~EXT4_MOUNT_##opt
> @@ -1527,9 +1531,14 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
> unsigned int s_mb_free_pending;
> struct list_head s_freed_data_list; /* List of blocks to be freed
> after commit completed */
> + struct rb_root s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root;
> + rwlock_t s_mb_rb_lock;
> + struct list_head *s_mb_largest_free_orders;
> + rwlock_t *s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks;
>
> /* tunables */
> unsigned long s_stripe;
> + unsigned int s_mb_linear_limit;
> unsigned int s_mb_stream_request;
> unsigned int s_mb_max_to_scan;
> unsigned int s_mb_min_to_scan;
> @@ -3308,11 +3317,14 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
> ext4_grpblk_t bb_free; /* total free blocks */
> ext4_grpblk_t bb_fragments; /* nr of freespace fragments */
> ext4_grpblk_t bb_largest_free_order;/* order of largest frag in BG */
> + ext4_group_t bb_group; /* Group number */
> struct list_head bb_prealloc_list;
> #ifdef DOUBLE_CHECK
> void *bb_bitmap;
> #endif
> struct rw_semaphore alloc_sem;
> + struct rb_node bb_avg_fragment_size_rb;
> + struct list_head bb_largest_free_order_node;
> ext4_grpblk_t bb_counters[]; /* Nr of free power-of-two-block
> * regions, index is order.
> * bb_counters[3] = 5 means
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> index 161412070fef..bcfd849bc61e 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> @@ -127,11 +127,50 @@
> * smallest multiple of the stripe value (sbi->s_stripe) which is
> * greater than the default mb_group_prealloc.
> *
> + * If "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is set, we maintain in memory group info
> + * structures in two data structures:
> + *
> + * 1) Array of largest free order lists (sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders)
> + *
> + * Locking: sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks(array of rw locks)
> + *
> + * This is an array of lists where the index in the array represents the
> + * largest free order in the buddy bitmap of the participating group infos of
> + * that list. So, there are exactly MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) (which means total
> + * number of buddy bitmap orders possible) number of lists. Group-infos are
> + * placed in appropriate lists.
> + *
> + * 2) Average fragment size rb tree (sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root)
> + *
> + * Locking: sbi->s_mb_rb_lock (rwlock)
> + *
> + * This is a red black tree consisting of group infos and the tree is sorted
> + * by average fragment sizes (which is calculated as ext4_group_info->bb_free
> + * / ext4_group_info->bb_fragments).
> + *
> + * When "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is set, mballoc consults the above data
> + * structures to decide the order in which groups are to be traversed for
> + * fulfilling an allocation request.
> + *
> + * At CR = 0, we look for groups which have the largest_free_order >= the order
> + * of the request. We directly look at the largest free order list in the data
> + * structure (1) above where largest_free_order = order of the request. If that
> + * list is empty, we look at remaining list in the increasing order of
> + * largest_free_order. This allows us to perform CR = 0 lookup in O(1) time.
> + *
> + * At CR = 1, we only consider groups where average fragment size > request
> + * size. So, we lookup a group which has average fragment size just above or
> + * equal to request size using our rb tree (data structure 2) in O(log N) time.
> + *
> + * If "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is not set, mballoc traverses groups in
> + * linear order which requires O(N) search time for each CR 0 and CR 1 phase.
> + *
> * The regular allocator (using the buddy cache) supports a few tunables.
> *
> * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_min_to_scan
> * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_max_to_scan
> * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_order2_req
> + * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_linear_limit
> *
> * The regular allocator uses buddy scan only if the request len is power of
> * 2 blocks and the order of allocation is >= sbi->s_mb_order2_reqs. The
> @@ -149,6 +188,16 @@
> * can be used for allocation. ext4_mb_good_group explains how the groups are
> * checked.
> *
> + * When "mb_optimize_scan" is turned on, as mentioned above, the groups may not
> + * get traversed linearly. That may result in subsequent allocations being not
> + * close to each other. And so, the underlying device may get filled up in a
> + * non-linear fashion. While that may not matter on non-rotational devices, for

Actually I believe this matters even for non-rotational devices. Flash-friendly filesystems
(such as F2FS for instance) try to escape rewriting and fill a device sequentially to prolong device lifetime.
Ext4 starts searching from a goal block. For empty disk next good group would be located near previous one.
For a filled filesystem, I agree, this doesn’t matter.

> + * rotational devices that may result in higher seek times. "mb_linear_limit"
> + * tells mballoc how many groups mballoc should search linearly before
> + * performing consulting above data structures for more efficient lookups. For
> + * non rotational devices, this value defaults to 0 and for rotational devices
> + * this is set to MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT.

Concerning the comment above are we going to set non-0 for non-rotational devices?

> + *
> * Both the prealloc space are getting populated as above. So for the first
> * request we will hit the buddy cache which will result in this prealloc
> * space getting filled. The prealloc space is then later used for the
> @@ -299,6 +348,8 @@
> * - bitlock on a group (group)
> * - object (inode/locality) (object)
> * - per-pa lock (pa)
> + * - cr0 lists lock (cr0)
> + * - cr1 tree lock (cr1)
> *
> * Paths:
> * - new pa
> @@ -328,6 +379,9 @@
> * group
> * object
> *
> + * - allocation path (ext4_mb_regular_allocator)
> + * group
> + * cr0/cr1
> */
> static struct kmem_cache *ext4_pspace_cachep;
> static struct kmem_cache *ext4_ac_cachep;
> @@ -351,6 +405,9 @@ static void ext4_mb_generate_from_freelist(struct super_block *sb, void *bitmap,
> ext4_group_t group);
> static void ext4_mb_new_preallocation(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac);
>
> +static bool ext4_mb_good_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> + ext4_group_t group, int cr);
> +
> /*
> * The algorithm using this percpu seq counter goes below:
> * 1. We sample the percpu discard_pa_seq counter before trying for block
> @@ -744,6 +801,243 @@ static void ext4_mb_mark_free_simple(struct super_block *sb,
> }
> }
>
> +static void ext4_mb_rb_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct rb_node *new,
> + int (*cmp)(struct rb_node *, struct rb_node *))
> +{
> + struct rb_node **iter = &root->rb_node, *parent = NULL;
> +
> + while (*iter) {
> + parent = *iter;
> + if (cmp(new, *iter))
> + iter = &((*iter)->rb_left);
> + else
> + iter = &((*iter)->rb_right);
> + }
> +
> + rb_link_node(new, parent, iter);
> + rb_insert_color(new, root);
> +}
> +
> +static int
> +ext4_mb_avg_fragment_size_cmp(struct rb_node *rb1, struct rb_node *rb2)
> +{
> + struct ext4_group_info *grp1 = rb_entry(rb1,
> + struct ext4_group_info,
> + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> + struct ext4_group_info *grp2 = rb_entry(rb2,
> + struct ext4_group_info,
> + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> + int num_frags_1, num_frags_2;
> +
> + num_frags_1 = grp1->bb_fragments ?
> + grp1->bb_free / grp1->bb_fragments : 0;
> + num_frags_2 = grp2->bb_fragments ?
> + grp2->bb_free / grp2->bb_fragments : 0;
> +
> + return (num_frags_1 < num_frags_2);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Reinsert grpinfo into the avg_fragment_size tree with new average
> + * fragment size.
> + */
> +static void
> +mb_update_avg_fragment_size(struct super_block *sb, struct ext4_group_info *grp)
> +{
> + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> +
> + if (!test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) || grp->bb_free == 0)
> + return;
> +
> + write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> + if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb)) {
> + rb_erase(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb,
> + &sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root);
> + RB_CLEAR_NODE(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> + }
> +
> + ext4_mb_rb_insert(&sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root,
> + &grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb,
> + ext4_mb_avg_fragment_size_cmp);
> + write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Choose next group by traversing largest_free_order lists. Return 0 if next
> + * group was selected optimally. Return 1 if next group was not selected
> + * optimally. Updates *new_cr if cr level needs an update.
> + */
> +static int ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr0(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> + int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
> +{
> + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
> + struct ext4_group_info *iter, *grp;
> + int i;
> +
> + if (ac->ac_status == AC_STATUS_FOUND)
> + return 1;
> +
> + grp = NULL;
> + for (i = ac->ac_2order; i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(ac->ac_sb); i++) {
> + if (list_empty(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i]))
> + continue;
> + read_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> + if (list_empty(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i])) {
> + read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> + continue;
> + }
> + grp = NULL;
> + list_for_each_entry(iter, &sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i],
> + bb_largest_free_order_node) {
> + ac->ac_groups_considered++;
> + if (likely(ext4_mb_good_group(ac, iter->bb_group, 0))) {
> + grp = iter;
> + break;
> + }
> + }
> + read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> + if (grp)
> + break;
> + }
> +
> + if (!grp) {
> + /* Increment cr and search again */
> + *new_cr = 1;
> + } else {
> + *group = grp->bb_group;
> + ac->ac_last_optimal_group = *group;
> + }
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Choose next group by traversing average fragment size tree. Return 0 if next
> + * group was selected optimally. Return 1 if next group could not selected
> + * optimally (due to lock contention). Updates *new_cr if cr lvel needs an
> + * update.
> + */
> +static int ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr1(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> + int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
> +{
> + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
> + int avg_fragment_size, best_so_far;
> + struct rb_node *node, *found;
> + struct ext4_group_info *grp;
> +
> + /*
> + * If there is contention on the lock, instead of waiting for the lock
> + * to become available, just continue searching lineraly. We'll resume
> + * our rb tree search later starting at ac->ac_last_optimal_group.
> + */
> + if (!read_trylock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock))
> + return 1;
> +
> + if (ac->ac_flags & EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED) {
> + /* We have found something at CR 1 in the past */
> + grp = ext4_get_group_info(ac->ac_sb, ac->ac_last_optimal_group);
> + for (found = rb_next(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb); found != NULL;
> + found = rb_next(found)) {
> + grp = rb_entry(found, struct ext4_group_info,
> + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> + ac->ac_groups_considered++;
> + if (likely(ext4_mb_good_group(ac, grp->bb_group, 1)))
> + break;
> + }
> +
> + goto done;
> + }
> +
> + node = sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root.rb_node;
> + best_so_far = 0;
> + found = NULL;
> +
> + while (node) {
> + grp = rb_entry(node, struct ext4_group_info,
> + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> + avg_fragment_size = 0;
> + /*
> + * Perform this check without locking, we'll lock later to confirm.
> + */
> + if (ext4_mb_good_group(ac, grp->bb_group, 1)) {
> + avg_fragment_size = grp->bb_fragments ?
> + grp->bb_free / grp->bb_fragments : 0;
> + if (!best_so_far || avg_fragment_size < best_so_far) {
> + best_so_far = avg_fragment_size;
> + found = node;
> + }
> + }
> + if (avg_fragment_size > ac->ac_g_ex.fe_len)
> + node = node->rb_right;
> + else
> + node = node->rb_left;
> + }
> +
> +done:
> + if (found) {
> + grp = rb_entry(found, struct ext4_group_info,
> + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> + *group = grp->bb_group;
> + ac->ac_flags |= EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED;
> + } else {
> + *new_cr = 2;
> + }
> +
> + read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> + ac->ac_last_optimal_group = *group;
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * ext4_mb_choose_next_group: choose next group for allocation.
> + *
> + * @ac Allocation Context
> + * @new_cr This is an output parameter. If the there is no good group available
> + * at current CR level, this field is updated to indicate the new cr
> + * level that should be used.
> + * @group This is an input / output parameter. As an input it indicates the last
> + * group used for allocation. As output, this field indicates the
> + * next group that should be used.
> + * @ngroups Total number of groups
> + */
> +static void ext4_mb_choose_next_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> + int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
> +{
> + int ret;
> +
> + *new_cr = ac->ac_criteria;
> +
> + if (!test_opt2(ac->ac_sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) ||
> + *new_cr >= 2 ||
> + !ext4_test_inode_flag(ac->ac_inode, EXT4_INODE_EXTENTS))
> + goto inc_and_return;
> +
> + if (ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining) {
> + ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining--;
> + goto inc_and_return;
> + }
> +
> + if (*new_cr == 0) {
> + ret = ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr0(ac, new_cr, group, ngroups);
> + if (ret)
> + goto inc_and_return;
> + }
> + if (*new_cr == 1) {
> + ret = ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr1(ac, new_cr, group, ngroups);
> + if (ret)
> + goto inc_and_return;
> + }
> + return;
> +
> +inc_and_return:
> + /*
> + * Artificially restricted ngroups for non-extent
> + * files makes group > ngroups possible on first loop.
> + */
> + *group = *group + 1;
> + if (*group >= ngroups)
> + *group = 0;
> +}
> +
> /*
> * Cache the order of the largest free extent we have available in this block
> * group.
> @@ -751,18 +1045,33 @@ static void ext4_mb_mark_free_simple(struct super_block *sb,
> static void
> mb_set_largest_free_order(struct super_block *sb, struct ext4_group_info *grp)
> {
> + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> int i;
> - int bits;
>
> + if (test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) && grp->bb_largest_free_order >= 0) {
> + write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> + list_del_init(&grp->bb_largest_free_order_node);
> + write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> + }
> grp->bb_largest_free_order = -1; /* uninit */
>
> - bits = MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) - 1;
> - for (i = bits; i >= 0; i--) {
> + for (i = MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
> if (grp->bb_counters[i] > 0) {
> grp->bb_largest_free_order = i;
> break;
> }
> }
> + if (test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) &&
> + grp->bb_largest_free_order >= 0 && grp->bb_free) {
> + write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> + list_add_tail(&grp->bb_largest_free_order_node,
> + &sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> + write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> + }
> }
>
> static noinline_for_stack
> @@ -818,6 +1127,7 @@ void ext4_mb_generate_buddy(struct super_block *sb,
> period = get_cycles() - period;
> atomic_inc(&sbi->s_mb_buddies_generated);
> atomic64_add(period, &sbi->s_mb_generation_time);
> + mb_update_avg_fragment_size(sb, grp);
> }
>
> /* The buddy information is attached the buddy cache inode
> @@ -1517,6 +1827,7 @@ static void mb_free_blocks(struct inode *inode, struct ext4_buddy *e4b,
>
> done:
> mb_set_largest_free_order(sb, e4b->bd_info);
> + mb_update_avg_fragment_size(sb, e4b->bd_info);
> mb_check_buddy(e4b);
> }
>
> @@ -1653,6 +1964,7 @@ static int mb_mark_used(struct ext4_buddy *e4b, struct ext4_free_extent *ex)
> }
> mb_set_largest_free_order(e4b->bd_sb, e4b->bd_info);
>
> + mb_update_avg_fragment_size(e4b->bd_sb, e4b->bd_info);
> ext4_set_bits(e4b->bd_bitmap, ex->fe_start, len0);
> mb_check_buddy(e4b);
>
> @@ -2346,17 +2658,21 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> * from the goal value specified
> */
> group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
> + ac->ac_last_optimal_group = group;
> + ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining = sbi->s_mb_linear_limit;
> prefetch_grp = group;
>
> - for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
> - int ret = 0;
> + for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
> + int ret = 0, new_cr;
> +
> cond_resched();
> - /*
> - * Artificially restricted ngroups for non-extent
> - * files makes group > ngroups possible on first loop.
> - */
> - if (group >= ngroups)
> - group = 0;
> +
> + ext4_mb_choose_next_group(ac, &new_cr, &group, ngroups);
> +
> + if (new_cr != cr) {
> + cr = new_cr;
> + goto repeat;
> + }
>
> /*
> * Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
> @@ -2696,7 +3012,10 @@ int ext4_mb_add_groupinfo(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> INIT_LIST_HEAD(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_prealloc_list);
> init_rwsem(&meta_group_info[i]->alloc_sem);
> meta_group_info[i]->bb_free_root = RB_ROOT;
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_largest_free_order_node);
> + RB_CLEAR_NODE(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> meta_group_info[i]->bb_largest_free_order = -1; /* uninit */
> + meta_group_info[i]->bb_group = group;
>
> mb_group_bb_bitmap_alloc(sb, meta_group_info[i], group);
> return 0;
> @@ -2886,6 +3205,22 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> i++;
> } while (i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb));
>
> + sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root = RB_ROOT;
> + sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders =
> + kmalloc_array(MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb), sizeof(struct list_head),
> + GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders)
> + goto out;
> + sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks =
> + kmalloc_array(MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb), sizeof(rwlock_t),
> + GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks)
> + goto out;
> + for (i = 0; i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb); i++) {
> + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i]);
> + rwlock_init(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> + }
> + rwlock_init(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
>
> spin_lock_init(&sbi->s_md_lock);
> sbi->s_mb_free_pending = 0;
> @@ -2938,6 +3273,20 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> spin_lock_init(&lg->lg_prealloc_lock);
> }
>
> + if (blk_queue_nonrot(bdev_get_queue(sb->s_bdev)))
> + sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = 0;
> + else
> + sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT;
> +#ifndef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> + /*
> + * Disable mb_optimize scan if we don't have enough groups. If
> + * CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG is set, we don't disable this MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN even
> + * for small file systems. This allows us to test correctness on small
> + * file systems.
> + */
> + if (ext4_get_groups_count(sb) < MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD)
> + clear_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN);
> +#endif
> /* init file for buddy data */
> ret = ext4_mb_init_backend(sb);
> if (ret != 0)
> @@ -2949,6 +3298,8 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> free_percpu(sbi->s_locality_groups);
> sbi->s_locality_groups = NULL;
> out:
> + kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders);
> + kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks);
> kfree(sbi->s_mb_offsets);
> sbi->s_mb_offsets = NULL;
> kfree(sbi->s_mb_maxs);
> @@ -3005,6 +3356,7 @@ int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
> kvfree(group_info);
> rcu_read_unlock();
> }
> + kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders);
> kfree(sbi->s_mb_offsets);
> kfree(sbi->s_mb_maxs);
> iput(sbi->s_buddy_cache);
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> index 02861406932f..5c0275f832a0 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> @@ -78,6 +78,18 @@
> */
> #define MB_DEFAULT_MAX_INODE_PREALLOC 512
>
> +/*
> + * Number of groups to search linearly before performing group scanning
> + * optimization.
> + */
> +#define MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT 4
> +
> +/*
> + * Minimum number of groups that should be present in the file system to perform
> + * group scanning optimizations.
> + */
> +#define MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD 16
> +
> /*
> * Number of valid buddy orders
> */
> @@ -166,8 +178,10 @@ struct ext4_allocation_context {
> /* copy of the best found extent taken before preallocation efforts */
> struct ext4_free_extent ac_f_ex;
>
> + ext4_group_t ac_last_optimal_group;
> __u32 ac_groups_considered;
> __u16 ac_groups_scanned;
> + __u16 ac_groups_linear_remaining;
> __u16 ac_found;
> __u16 ac_tail;
> __u16 ac_buddy;
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
> index 071d131fadd8..aa92d3ebe13d 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/super.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
> @@ -154,6 +154,7 @@ static inline void __ext4_read_bh(struct buffer_head *bh, int op_flags,
> clear_buffer_verified(bh);
>
> bh->b_end_io = end_io ? end_io : end_buffer_read_sync;
> +
> get_bh(bh);
> submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, op_flags, bh);
> }
> @@ -1687,7 +1688,7 @@ enum {
> Opt_dioread_nolock, Opt_dioread_lock,
> Opt_discard, Opt_nodiscard, Opt_init_itable, Opt_noinit_itable,
> Opt_max_dir_size_kb, Opt_nojournal_checksum, Opt_nombcache,
> - Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps,
> + Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, Opt_mb_optimize_scan,
> #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> Opt_fc_debug_max_replay, Opt_fc_debug_force
> #endif
> @@ -1788,6 +1789,7 @@ static const match_table_t tokens = {
> {Opt_nombcache, "nombcache"},
> {Opt_nombcache, "no_mbcache"}, /* for backward compatibility */
> {Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, "prefetch_block_bitmaps"},
> + {Opt_mb_optimize_scan, "mb_optimize_scan"},
> {Opt_removed, "check=none"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
> {Opt_removed, "nocheck"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
> {Opt_removed, "reservation"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
> @@ -2008,6 +2010,8 @@ static const struct mount_opts {
> {Opt_nombcache, EXT4_MOUNT_NO_MBCACHE, MOPT_SET},
> {Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS,
> MOPT_SET},
> + {Opt_mb_optimize_scan, EXT4_MOUNT2_MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN,
> + MOPT_SET | MOPT_2 | MOPT_EXT4_ONLY},
> #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> {Opt_fc_debug_force, EXT4_MOUNT2_JOURNAL_FAST_COMMIT,
> MOPT_SET | MOPT_2 | MOPT_EXT4_ONLY},
> diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> index 59ca9d73b42f..16b8a838f631 100644
> --- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> +++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> @@ -213,6 +213,7 @@ EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_order2_req, s_mb_order2_reqs);
> EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_stream_req, s_mb_stream_request);
> EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_group_prealloc, s_mb_group_prealloc);
> EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_max_inode_prealloc, s_mb_max_inode_prealloc);
> +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_linear_limit, s_mb_linear_limit);
> EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(extent_max_zeroout_kb, s_extent_max_zeroout_kb);
> EXT4_ATTR(trigger_fs_error, 0200, trigger_test_error);
> EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(err_ratelimit_interval_ms, s_err_ratelimit_state.interval);
> @@ -260,6 +261,7 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
> ATTR_LIST(mb_stream_req),
> ATTR_LIST(mb_group_prealloc),
> ATTR_LIST(mb_max_inode_prealloc),
> + ATTR_LIST(mb_linear_limit),
> ATTR_LIST(max_writeback_mb_bump),
> ATTR_LIST(extent_max_zeroout_kb),
> ATTR_LIST(trigger_fs_error),
> --
> 2.30.1.766.gb4fecdf3b7-goog

Best regards,
Artem Blagodarenko.

2021-03-04 14:07:44

by Harshad Shirwadkar

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: [PATCH v3 4/5] ext4: improve cr 0 / cr 1 group scanning

Hi all,

Thanks Andreas and Artem for the feedback. I'll incorporate these
suggestions in the next version of the patchset.

In our discussions above, we have been trying to fine tune the flow of
the block allocator based on different use cases. I wonder given the
number of different allocation paths that now exist and given their
own pros and cons, does it make sense to consider adding an eBPF hook
in the allocator path and let the user-space be involved in some of
decisions based on the use case? For example, a system that cares most
about the fragmentation levels and performance can choose to do this
fast path and skip other paths like prealloc, linear search, search by
goal etc.

Having an eBPF hook in the allocator can also allow for following
other enhancements:

1) Allocator behavior can be dynamically configured. For example, if
we reach a threshold fragmentation level, turn off linear allocation.

2) Different allocation paths can be used for different regions of the disk.

3) The userspace can have a say in how files are laid on the disk. On
a rotational disk, mysql can choose to keep its files together, while
directing any non-mysql files to be written farther away from mysql
files. Also, different applications can have a different allocation
path based on their latency requirements.

Having said that, I'm not sure what kind of performance impact we'll
see by putting an eBPF hook in the allocation path. Also, given that
we don't yet have an ecosystem around eBPF in Ext4 (or file systems in
general), this is really a far-fetched idea and may take a long time
to become mature enough to be usable in production.

This is just an idea that I wanted to share, this patch series doesn't
do or intend to do anything that's mentioned above.

Thanks,
Harshad



On Wed, Mar 3, 2021 at 3:31 AM Благодаренко Артём
<[email protected]> wrote:
>
> Hello Harshad,
>
> Thank you for the new patchset. Everything looks good for me.
> One comment below.
>
> > On 26 Feb 2021, at 22:36, Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]> wrote:
> >
> > Instead of traversing through groups linearly, scan groups in specific
> > orders at cr 0 and cr 1. At cr 0, we want to find groups that have the
> > largest free order >= the order of the request. So, with this patch,
> > we maintain lists for each possible order and insert each group into a
> > list based on the largest free order in its buddy bitmap. During cr 0
> > allocation, we traverse these lists in the increasing order of largest
> > free orders. This allows us to find a group with the best available cr
> > 0 match in constant time. If nothing can be found, we fallback to cr 1
> > immediately.
> >
> > At CR1, the story is slightly different. We want to traverse in the
> > order of increasing average fragment size. For CR1, we maintain a rb
> > tree of groupinfos which is sorted by average fragment size. Instead
> > of traversing linearly, at CR1, we traverse in the order of increasing
> > average fragment size, starting at the most optimal group. This brings
> > down cr 1 search complexity to log(num groups).
> >
> > For cr >= 2, we just perform the linear search as before. Also, in
> > case of lock contention, we intermittently fallback to linear search
> > even in CR 0 and CR 1 cases. This allows us to proceed during the
> > allocation path even in case of high contention.
> >
> > There is an opportunity to do optimization at CR2 too. That's because
> > at CR2 we only consider groups where bb_free counter (number of free
> > blocks) is greater than the request extent size. That's left as future
> > work.
> >
> > All the changes introduced in this patch are protected under a new
> > mount option "mb_optimize_scan".
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Harshad Shirwadkar <[email protected]>
> > Reported-by: kernel test robot <[email protected]>
> > Reported-by: Dan Carpenter <[email protected]>
> > ---
> > fs/ext4/ext4.h | 14 +-
> > fs/ext4/mballoc.c | 374 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
> > fs/ext4/mballoc.h | 14 ++
> > fs/ext4/super.c | 6 +-
> > fs/ext4/sysfs.c | 2 +
> > 5 files changed, 397 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)
> >
> > diff --git a/fs/ext4/ext4.h b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> > index 3e906a3d553a..d792418c39ca 100644
> > --- a/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> > +++ b/fs/ext4/ext4.h
> > @@ -162,6 +162,8 @@ enum SHIFT_DIRECTION {
> > #define EXT4_MB_USE_RESERVED 0x2000
> > /* Do strict check for free blocks while retrying block allocation */
> > #define EXT4_MB_STRICT_CHECK 0x4000
> > +/* Avg fragment size rb tree lookup succeeded at least once for cr = 1 */
> > +#define EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED 0x8000
> >
> > struct ext4_allocation_request {
> > /* target inode for block we're allocating */
> > @@ -1247,7 +1249,9 @@ struct ext4_inode_info {
> > #define EXT4_MOUNT2_JOURNAL_FAST_COMMIT 0x00000010 /* Journal fast commit */
> > #define EXT4_MOUNT2_DAX_NEVER 0x00000020 /* Do not allow Direct Access */
> > #define EXT4_MOUNT2_DAX_INODE 0x00000040 /* For printing options only */
> > -
> > +#define EXT4_MOUNT2_MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN 0x00000080 /* Optimize group
> > + * scanning in mballoc
> > + */
> >
> > #define clear_opt(sb, opt) EXT4_SB(sb)->s_mount_opt &= \
> > ~EXT4_MOUNT_##opt
> > @@ -1527,9 +1531,14 @@ struct ext4_sb_info {
> > unsigned int s_mb_free_pending;
> > struct list_head s_freed_data_list; /* List of blocks to be freed
> > after commit completed */
> > + struct rb_root s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root;
> > + rwlock_t s_mb_rb_lock;
> > + struct list_head *s_mb_largest_free_orders;
> > + rwlock_t *s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks;
> >
> > /* tunables */
> > unsigned long s_stripe;
> > + unsigned int s_mb_linear_limit;
> > unsigned int s_mb_stream_request;
> > unsigned int s_mb_max_to_scan;
> > unsigned int s_mb_min_to_scan;
> > @@ -3308,11 +3317,14 @@ struct ext4_group_info {
> > ext4_grpblk_t bb_free; /* total free blocks */
> > ext4_grpblk_t bb_fragments; /* nr of freespace fragments */
> > ext4_grpblk_t bb_largest_free_order;/* order of largest frag in BG */
> > + ext4_group_t bb_group; /* Group number */
> > struct list_head bb_prealloc_list;
> > #ifdef DOUBLE_CHECK
> > void *bb_bitmap;
> > #endif
> > struct rw_semaphore alloc_sem;
> > + struct rb_node bb_avg_fragment_size_rb;
> > + struct list_head bb_largest_free_order_node;
> > ext4_grpblk_t bb_counters[]; /* Nr of free power-of-two-block
> > * regions, index is order.
> > * bb_counters[3] = 5 means
> > diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> > index 161412070fef..bcfd849bc61e 100644
> > --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> > +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.c
> > @@ -127,11 +127,50 @@
> > * smallest multiple of the stripe value (sbi->s_stripe) which is
> > * greater than the default mb_group_prealloc.
> > *
> > + * If "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is set, we maintain in memory group info
> > + * structures in two data structures:
> > + *
> > + * 1) Array of largest free order lists (sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders)
> > + *
> > + * Locking: sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks(array of rw locks)
> > + *
> > + * This is an array of lists where the index in the array represents the
> > + * largest free order in the buddy bitmap of the participating group infos of
> > + * that list. So, there are exactly MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) (which means total
> > + * number of buddy bitmap orders possible) number of lists. Group-infos are
> > + * placed in appropriate lists.
> > + *
> > + * 2) Average fragment size rb tree (sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root)
> > + *
> > + * Locking: sbi->s_mb_rb_lock (rwlock)
> > + *
> > + * This is a red black tree consisting of group infos and the tree is sorted
> > + * by average fragment sizes (which is calculated as ext4_group_info->bb_free
> > + * / ext4_group_info->bb_fragments).
> > + *
> > + * When "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is set, mballoc consults the above data
> > + * structures to decide the order in which groups are to be traversed for
> > + * fulfilling an allocation request.
> > + *
> > + * At CR = 0, we look for groups which have the largest_free_order >= the order
> > + * of the request. We directly look at the largest free order list in the data
> > + * structure (1) above where largest_free_order = order of the request. If that
> > + * list is empty, we look at remaining list in the increasing order of
> > + * largest_free_order. This allows us to perform CR = 0 lookup in O(1) time.
> > + *
> > + * At CR = 1, we only consider groups where average fragment size > request
> > + * size. So, we lookup a group which has average fragment size just above or
> > + * equal to request size using our rb tree (data structure 2) in O(log N) time.
> > + *
> > + * If "mb_optimize_scan" mount option is not set, mballoc traverses groups in
> > + * linear order which requires O(N) search time for each CR 0 and CR 1 phase.
> > + *
> > * The regular allocator (using the buddy cache) supports a few tunables.
> > *
> > * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_min_to_scan
> > * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_max_to_scan
> > * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_order2_req
> > + * /sys/fs/ext4/<partition>/mb_linear_limit
> > *
> > * The regular allocator uses buddy scan only if the request len is power of
> > * 2 blocks and the order of allocation is >= sbi->s_mb_order2_reqs. The
> > @@ -149,6 +188,16 @@
> > * can be used for allocation. ext4_mb_good_group explains how the groups are
> > * checked.
> > *
> > + * When "mb_optimize_scan" is turned on, as mentioned above, the groups may not
> > + * get traversed linearly. That may result in subsequent allocations being not
> > + * close to each other. And so, the underlying device may get filled up in a
> > + * non-linear fashion. While that may not matter on non-rotational devices, for
>
> Actually I believe this matters even for non-rotational devices. Flash-friendly filesystems
> (such as F2FS for instance) try to escape rewriting and fill a device sequentially to prolong device lifetime.
> Ext4 starts searching from a goal block. For empty disk next good group would be located near previous one.
> For a filled filesystem, I agree, this doesn’t matter.
>
> > + * rotational devices that may result in higher seek times. "mb_linear_limit"
> > + * tells mballoc how many groups mballoc should search linearly before
> > + * performing consulting above data structures for more efficient lookups. For
> > + * non rotational devices, this value defaults to 0 and for rotational devices
> > + * this is set to MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT.
>
> Concerning the comment above are we going to set non-0 for non-rotational devices?
>
> > + *
> > * Both the prealloc space are getting populated as above. So for the first
> > * request we will hit the buddy cache which will result in this prealloc
> > * space getting filled. The prealloc space is then later used for the
> > @@ -299,6 +348,8 @@
> > * - bitlock on a group (group)
> > * - object (inode/locality) (object)
> > * - per-pa lock (pa)
> > + * - cr0 lists lock (cr0)
> > + * - cr1 tree lock (cr1)
> > *
> > * Paths:
> > * - new pa
> > @@ -328,6 +379,9 @@
> > * group
> > * object
> > *
> > + * - allocation path (ext4_mb_regular_allocator)
> > + * group
> > + * cr0/cr1
> > */
> > static struct kmem_cache *ext4_pspace_cachep;
> > static struct kmem_cache *ext4_ac_cachep;
> > @@ -351,6 +405,9 @@ static void ext4_mb_generate_from_freelist(struct super_block *sb, void *bitmap,
> > ext4_group_t group);
> > static void ext4_mb_new_preallocation(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac);
> >
> > +static bool ext4_mb_good_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> > + ext4_group_t group, int cr);
> > +
> > /*
> > * The algorithm using this percpu seq counter goes below:
> > * 1. We sample the percpu discard_pa_seq counter before trying for block
> > @@ -744,6 +801,243 @@ static void ext4_mb_mark_free_simple(struct super_block *sb,
> > }
> > }
> >
> > +static void ext4_mb_rb_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct rb_node *new,
> > + int (*cmp)(struct rb_node *, struct rb_node *))
> > +{
> > + struct rb_node **iter = &root->rb_node, *parent = NULL;
> > +
> > + while (*iter) {
> > + parent = *iter;
> > + if (cmp(new, *iter))
> > + iter = &((*iter)->rb_left);
> > + else
> > + iter = &((*iter)->rb_right);
> > + }
> > +
> > + rb_link_node(new, parent, iter);
> > + rb_insert_color(new, root);
> > +}
> > +
> > +static int
> > +ext4_mb_avg_fragment_size_cmp(struct rb_node *rb1, struct rb_node *rb2)
> > +{
> > + struct ext4_group_info *grp1 = rb_entry(rb1,
> > + struct ext4_group_info,
> > + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > + struct ext4_group_info *grp2 = rb_entry(rb2,
> > + struct ext4_group_info,
> > + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > + int num_frags_1, num_frags_2;
> > +
> > + num_frags_1 = grp1->bb_fragments ?
> > + grp1->bb_free / grp1->bb_fragments : 0;
> > + num_frags_2 = grp2->bb_fragments ?
> > + grp2->bb_free / grp2->bb_fragments : 0;
> > +
> > + return (num_frags_1 < num_frags_2);
> > +}
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Reinsert grpinfo into the avg_fragment_size tree with new average
> > + * fragment size.
> > + */
> > +static void
> > +mb_update_avg_fragment_size(struct super_block *sb, struct ext4_group_info *grp)
> > +{
> > + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> > +
> > + if (!test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) || grp->bb_free == 0)
> > + return;
> > +
> > + write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> > + if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb)) {
> > + rb_erase(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb,
> > + &sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root);
> > + RB_CLEAR_NODE(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > + }
> > +
> > + ext4_mb_rb_insert(&sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root,
> > + &grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb,
> > + ext4_mb_avg_fragment_size_cmp);
> > + write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> > +}
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Choose next group by traversing largest_free_order lists. Return 0 if next
> > + * group was selected optimally. Return 1 if next group was not selected
> > + * optimally. Updates *new_cr if cr level needs an update.
> > + */
> > +static int ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr0(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> > + int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
> > +{
> > + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
> > + struct ext4_group_info *iter, *grp;
> > + int i;
> > +
> > + if (ac->ac_status == AC_STATUS_FOUND)
> > + return 1;
> > +
> > + grp = NULL;
> > + for (i = ac->ac_2order; i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(ac->ac_sb); i++) {
> > + if (list_empty(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i]))
> > + continue;
> > + read_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> > + if (list_empty(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i])) {
> > + read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> > + continue;
> > + }
> > + grp = NULL;
> > + list_for_each_entry(iter, &sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i],
> > + bb_largest_free_order_node) {
> > + ac->ac_groups_considered++;
> > + if (likely(ext4_mb_good_group(ac, iter->bb_group, 0))) {
> > + grp = iter;
> > + break;
> > + }
> > + }
> > + read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> > + if (grp)
> > + break;
> > + }
> > +
> > + if (!grp) {
> > + /* Increment cr and search again */
> > + *new_cr = 1;
> > + } else {
> > + *group = grp->bb_group;
> > + ac->ac_last_optimal_group = *group;
> > + }
> > + return 0;
> > +}
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Choose next group by traversing average fragment size tree. Return 0 if next
> > + * group was selected optimally. Return 1 if next group could not selected
> > + * optimally (due to lock contention). Updates *new_cr if cr lvel needs an
> > + * update.
> > + */
> > +static int ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr1(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> > + int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
> > +{
> > + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(ac->ac_sb);
> > + int avg_fragment_size, best_so_far;
> > + struct rb_node *node, *found;
> > + struct ext4_group_info *grp;
> > +
> > + /*
> > + * If there is contention on the lock, instead of waiting for the lock
> > + * to become available, just continue searching lineraly. We'll resume
> > + * our rb tree search later starting at ac->ac_last_optimal_group.
> > + */
> > + if (!read_trylock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock))
> > + return 1;
> > +
> > + if (ac->ac_flags & EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED) {
> > + /* We have found something at CR 1 in the past */
> > + grp = ext4_get_group_info(ac->ac_sb, ac->ac_last_optimal_group);
> > + for (found = rb_next(&grp->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb); found != NULL;
> > + found = rb_next(found)) {
> > + grp = rb_entry(found, struct ext4_group_info,
> > + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > + ac->ac_groups_considered++;
> > + if (likely(ext4_mb_good_group(ac, grp->bb_group, 1)))
> > + break;
> > + }
> > +
> > + goto done;
> > + }
> > +
> > + node = sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root.rb_node;
> > + best_so_far = 0;
> > + found = NULL;
> > +
> > + while (node) {
> > + grp = rb_entry(node, struct ext4_group_info,
> > + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > + avg_fragment_size = 0;
> > + /*
> > + * Perform this check without locking, we'll lock later to confirm.
> > + */
> > + if (ext4_mb_good_group(ac, grp->bb_group, 1)) {
> > + avg_fragment_size = grp->bb_fragments ?
> > + grp->bb_free / grp->bb_fragments : 0;
> > + if (!best_so_far || avg_fragment_size < best_so_far) {
> > + best_so_far = avg_fragment_size;
> > + found = node;
> > + }
> > + }
> > + if (avg_fragment_size > ac->ac_g_ex.fe_len)
> > + node = node->rb_right;
> > + else
> > + node = node->rb_left;
> > + }
> > +
> > +done:
> > + if (found) {
> > + grp = rb_entry(found, struct ext4_group_info,
> > + bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > + *group = grp->bb_group;
> > + ac->ac_flags |= EXT4_MB_CR1_OPTIMIZED;
> > + } else {
> > + *new_cr = 2;
> > + }
> > +
> > + read_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> > + ac->ac_last_optimal_group = *group;
> > + return 0;
> > +}
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * ext4_mb_choose_next_group: choose next group for allocation.
> > + *
> > + * @ac Allocation Context
> > + * @new_cr This is an output parameter. If the there is no good group available
> > + * at current CR level, this field is updated to indicate the new cr
> > + * level that should be used.
> > + * @group This is an input / output parameter. As an input it indicates the last
> > + * group used for allocation. As output, this field indicates the
> > + * next group that should be used.
> > + * @ngroups Total number of groups
> > + */
> > +static void ext4_mb_choose_next_group(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac,
> > + int *new_cr, ext4_group_t *group, ext4_group_t ngroups)
> > +{
> > + int ret;
> > +
> > + *new_cr = ac->ac_criteria;
> > +
> > + if (!test_opt2(ac->ac_sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) ||
> > + *new_cr >= 2 ||
> > + !ext4_test_inode_flag(ac->ac_inode, EXT4_INODE_EXTENTS))
> > + goto inc_and_return;
> > +
> > + if (ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining) {
> > + ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining--;
> > + goto inc_and_return;
> > + }
> > +
> > + if (*new_cr == 0) {
> > + ret = ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr0(ac, new_cr, group, ngroups);
> > + if (ret)
> > + goto inc_and_return;
> > + }
> > + if (*new_cr == 1) {
> > + ret = ext4_mb_choose_next_group_cr1(ac, new_cr, group, ngroups);
> > + if (ret)
> > + goto inc_and_return;
> > + }
> > + return;
> > +
> > +inc_and_return:
> > + /*
> > + * Artificially restricted ngroups for non-extent
> > + * files makes group > ngroups possible on first loop.
> > + */
> > + *group = *group + 1;
> > + if (*group >= ngroups)
> > + *group = 0;
> > +}
> > +
> > /*
> > * Cache the order of the largest free extent we have available in this block
> > * group.
> > @@ -751,18 +1045,33 @@ static void ext4_mb_mark_free_simple(struct super_block *sb,
> > static void
> > mb_set_largest_free_order(struct super_block *sb, struct ext4_group_info *grp)
> > {
> > + struct ext4_sb_info *sbi = EXT4_SB(sb);
> > int i;
> > - int bits;
> >
> > + if (test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) && grp->bb_largest_free_order >= 0) {
> > + write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> > + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> > + list_del_init(&grp->bb_largest_free_order_node);
> > + write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> > + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> > + }
> > grp->bb_largest_free_order = -1; /* uninit */
> >
> > - bits = MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) - 1;
> > - for (i = bits; i >= 0; i--) {
> > + for (i = MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb) - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
> > if (grp->bb_counters[i] > 0) {
> > grp->bb_largest_free_order = i;
> > break;
> > }
> > }
> > + if (test_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN) &&
> > + grp->bb_largest_free_order >= 0 && grp->bb_free) {
> > + write_lock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> > + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> > + list_add_tail(&grp->bb_largest_free_order_node,
> > + &sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> > + write_unlock(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[
> > + grp->bb_largest_free_order]);
> > + }
> > }
> >
> > static noinline_for_stack
> > @@ -818,6 +1127,7 @@ void ext4_mb_generate_buddy(struct super_block *sb,
> > period = get_cycles() - period;
> > atomic_inc(&sbi->s_mb_buddies_generated);
> > atomic64_add(period, &sbi->s_mb_generation_time);
> > + mb_update_avg_fragment_size(sb, grp);
> > }
> >
> > /* The buddy information is attached the buddy cache inode
> > @@ -1517,6 +1827,7 @@ static void mb_free_blocks(struct inode *inode, struct ext4_buddy *e4b,
> >
> > done:
> > mb_set_largest_free_order(sb, e4b->bd_info);
> > + mb_update_avg_fragment_size(sb, e4b->bd_info);
> > mb_check_buddy(e4b);
> > }
> >
> > @@ -1653,6 +1964,7 @@ static int mb_mark_used(struct ext4_buddy *e4b, struct ext4_free_extent *ex)
> > }
> > mb_set_largest_free_order(e4b->bd_sb, e4b->bd_info);
> >
> > + mb_update_avg_fragment_size(e4b->bd_sb, e4b->bd_info);
> > ext4_set_bits(e4b->bd_bitmap, ex->fe_start, len0);
> > mb_check_buddy(e4b);
> >
> > @@ -2346,17 +2658,21 @@ ext4_mb_regular_allocator(struct ext4_allocation_context *ac)
> > * from the goal value specified
> > */
> > group = ac->ac_g_ex.fe_group;
> > + ac->ac_last_optimal_group = group;
> > + ac->ac_groups_linear_remaining = sbi->s_mb_linear_limit;
> > prefetch_grp = group;
> >
> > - for (i = 0; i < ngroups; group++, i++) {
> > - int ret = 0;
> > + for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
> > + int ret = 0, new_cr;
> > +
> > cond_resched();
> > - /*
> > - * Artificially restricted ngroups for non-extent
> > - * files makes group > ngroups possible on first loop.
> > - */
> > - if (group >= ngroups)
> > - group = 0;
> > +
> > + ext4_mb_choose_next_group(ac, &new_cr, &group, ngroups);
> > +
> > + if (new_cr != cr) {
> > + cr = new_cr;
> > + goto repeat;
> > + }
> >
> > /*
> > * Batch reads of the block allocation bitmaps
> > @@ -2696,7 +3012,10 @@ int ext4_mb_add_groupinfo(struct super_block *sb, ext4_group_t group,
> > INIT_LIST_HEAD(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_prealloc_list);
> > init_rwsem(&meta_group_info[i]->alloc_sem);
> > meta_group_info[i]->bb_free_root = RB_ROOT;
> > + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_largest_free_order_node);
> > + RB_CLEAR_NODE(&meta_group_info[i]->bb_avg_fragment_size_rb);
> > meta_group_info[i]->bb_largest_free_order = -1; /* uninit */
> > + meta_group_info[i]->bb_group = group;
> >
> > mb_group_bb_bitmap_alloc(sb, meta_group_info[i], group);
> > return 0;
> > @@ -2886,6 +3205,22 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> > i++;
> > } while (i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb));
> >
> > + sbi->s_mb_avg_fragment_size_root = RB_ROOT;
> > + sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders =
> > + kmalloc_array(MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb), sizeof(struct list_head),
> > + GFP_KERNEL);
> > + if (!sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders)
> > + goto out;
> > + sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks =
> > + kmalloc_array(MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb), sizeof(rwlock_t),
> > + GFP_KERNEL);
> > + if (!sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks)
> > + goto out;
> > + for (i = 0; i < MB_NUM_ORDERS(sb); i++) {
> > + INIT_LIST_HEAD(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders[i]);
> > + rwlock_init(&sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks[i]);
> > + }
> > + rwlock_init(&sbi->s_mb_rb_lock);
> >
> > spin_lock_init(&sbi->s_md_lock);
> > sbi->s_mb_free_pending = 0;
> > @@ -2938,6 +3273,20 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> > spin_lock_init(&lg->lg_prealloc_lock);
> > }
> >
> > + if (blk_queue_nonrot(bdev_get_queue(sb->s_bdev)))
> > + sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = 0;
> > + else
> > + sbi->s_mb_linear_limit = MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT;
> > +#ifndef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> > + /*
> > + * Disable mb_optimize scan if we don't have enough groups. If
> > + * CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG is set, we don't disable this MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN even
> > + * for small file systems. This allows us to test correctness on small
> > + * file systems.
> > + */
> > + if (ext4_get_groups_count(sb) < MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD)
> > + clear_opt2(sb, MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN);
> > +#endif
> > /* init file for buddy data */
> > ret = ext4_mb_init_backend(sb);
> > if (ret != 0)
> > @@ -2949,6 +3298,8 @@ int ext4_mb_init(struct super_block *sb)
> > free_percpu(sbi->s_locality_groups);
> > sbi->s_locality_groups = NULL;
> > out:
> > + kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders);
> > + kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders_locks);
> > kfree(sbi->s_mb_offsets);
> > sbi->s_mb_offsets = NULL;
> > kfree(sbi->s_mb_maxs);
> > @@ -3005,6 +3356,7 @@ int ext4_mb_release(struct super_block *sb)
> > kvfree(group_info);
> > rcu_read_unlock();
> > }
> > + kfree(sbi->s_mb_largest_free_orders);
> > kfree(sbi->s_mb_offsets);
> > kfree(sbi->s_mb_maxs);
> > iput(sbi->s_buddy_cache);
> > diff --git a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> > index 02861406932f..5c0275f832a0 100644
> > --- a/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> > +++ b/fs/ext4/mballoc.h
> > @@ -78,6 +78,18 @@
> > */
> > #define MB_DEFAULT_MAX_INODE_PREALLOC 512
> >
> > +/*
> > + * Number of groups to search linearly before performing group scanning
> > + * optimization.
> > + */
> > +#define MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_LIMIT 4
> > +
> > +/*
> > + * Minimum number of groups that should be present in the file system to perform
> > + * group scanning optimizations.
> > + */
> > +#define MB_DEFAULT_LINEAR_SCAN_THRESHOLD 16
> > +
> > /*
> > * Number of valid buddy orders
> > */
> > @@ -166,8 +178,10 @@ struct ext4_allocation_context {
> > /* copy of the best found extent taken before preallocation efforts */
> > struct ext4_free_extent ac_f_ex;
> >
> > + ext4_group_t ac_last_optimal_group;
> > __u32 ac_groups_considered;
> > __u16 ac_groups_scanned;
> > + __u16 ac_groups_linear_remaining;
> > __u16 ac_found;
> > __u16 ac_tail;
> > __u16 ac_buddy;
> > diff --git a/fs/ext4/super.c b/fs/ext4/super.c
> > index 071d131fadd8..aa92d3ebe13d 100644
> > --- a/fs/ext4/super.c
> > +++ b/fs/ext4/super.c
> > @@ -154,6 +154,7 @@ static inline void __ext4_read_bh(struct buffer_head *bh, int op_flags,
> > clear_buffer_verified(bh);
> >
> > bh->b_end_io = end_io ? end_io : end_buffer_read_sync;
> > +
> > get_bh(bh);
> > submit_bh(REQ_OP_READ, op_flags, bh);
> > }
> > @@ -1687,7 +1688,7 @@ enum {
> > Opt_dioread_nolock, Opt_dioread_lock,
> > Opt_discard, Opt_nodiscard, Opt_init_itable, Opt_noinit_itable,
> > Opt_max_dir_size_kb, Opt_nojournal_checksum, Opt_nombcache,
> > - Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps,
> > + Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, Opt_mb_optimize_scan,
> > #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> > Opt_fc_debug_max_replay, Opt_fc_debug_force
> > #endif
> > @@ -1788,6 +1789,7 @@ static const match_table_t tokens = {
> > {Opt_nombcache, "nombcache"},
> > {Opt_nombcache, "no_mbcache"}, /* for backward compatibility */
> > {Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, "prefetch_block_bitmaps"},
> > + {Opt_mb_optimize_scan, "mb_optimize_scan"},
> > {Opt_removed, "check=none"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
> > {Opt_removed, "nocheck"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
> > {Opt_removed, "reservation"}, /* mount option from ext2/3 */
> > @@ -2008,6 +2010,8 @@ static const struct mount_opts {
> > {Opt_nombcache, EXT4_MOUNT_NO_MBCACHE, MOPT_SET},
> > {Opt_prefetch_block_bitmaps, EXT4_MOUNT_PREFETCH_BLOCK_BITMAPS,
> > MOPT_SET},
> > + {Opt_mb_optimize_scan, EXT4_MOUNT2_MB_OPTIMIZE_SCAN,
> > + MOPT_SET | MOPT_2 | MOPT_EXT4_ONLY},
> > #ifdef CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG
> > {Opt_fc_debug_force, EXT4_MOUNT2_JOURNAL_FAST_COMMIT,
> > MOPT_SET | MOPT_2 | MOPT_EXT4_ONLY},
> > diff --git a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> > index 59ca9d73b42f..16b8a838f631 100644
> > --- a/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> > +++ b/fs/ext4/sysfs.c
> > @@ -213,6 +213,7 @@ EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_order2_req, s_mb_order2_reqs);
> > EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_stream_req, s_mb_stream_request);
> > EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_group_prealloc, s_mb_group_prealloc);
> > EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_max_inode_prealloc, s_mb_max_inode_prealloc);
> > +EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(mb_linear_limit, s_mb_linear_limit);
> > EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(extent_max_zeroout_kb, s_extent_max_zeroout_kb);
> > EXT4_ATTR(trigger_fs_error, 0200, trigger_test_error);
> > EXT4_RW_ATTR_SBI_UI(err_ratelimit_interval_ms, s_err_ratelimit_state.interval);
> > @@ -260,6 +261,7 @@ static struct attribute *ext4_attrs[] = {
> > ATTR_LIST(mb_stream_req),
> > ATTR_LIST(mb_group_prealloc),
> > ATTR_LIST(mb_max_inode_prealloc),
> > + ATTR_LIST(mb_linear_limit),
> > ATTR_LIST(max_writeback_mb_bump),
> > ATTR_LIST(extent_max_zeroout_kb),
> > ATTR_LIST(trigger_fs_error),
> > --
> > 2.30.1.766.gb4fecdf3b7-goog
>
> Best regards,
> Artem Blagodarenko.
>