Linus, please apply. Without this patch, USB has problems when built
into the kernel and modversions are used, I have confirmation that it
fixes the reported problem. The only changes from the previous version
of this patch are in the documentation.
This patch against 2.4.0-test10-pre6 implements LINK_FIRST and
LINK_LAST to fix the problem with usb initialization order. The patch
*only* affects drivers/usb because that is the only Makefile that
specifies LINK_FIRST. All the other Makefiles still rely on the kludge
where the link order is implicit in the order that objects are
declared. USB is a special case[*] and the kludge is no longer enough,
it really does need LINK_FIRST.
Do not change any other Makefiles to use LINK_FIRST/LAST unless you can
guarantee that you know and have take care of all the side effects of
changing link order. Given the lack of documentation on link order in
most Makefiles, that means leave link order alone until 2.5 unless
there is absolutely no other way of fixing the problem.
--- 0-test10-pre6.1/drivers/usb/Makefile Tue, 24 Oct 2000 14:20:12 +1100 kaos (linux-2.4/n/b/19_Makefile 22.214.171.124 644)
+++ 0-test10-pre6.1(w)/drivers/usb/Makefile Sun, 29 Oct 2000 12:38:11 +1100 kaos (linux-2.4/n/b/19_Makefile 126.96.36.199 644)
@@ -18,6 +18,18 @@ O_OBJS :=
export-objs := usb.o
+# usb.o contains usb_init which is marked as __initcall (actually
+# module_init). usb_init must be executed before all other usb __initcall
+# routines, otherwise the individual drivers will be initialized before the
+# hub driver is, causing the hub driver initialization sequence to
+# needlessly probe every USB driver with the root hub device. This causes
+# a lot of unnecessary system log messages, a lot of user confusion, and
+# has been known to cause a incorrectly programmed USB device driver to
+# grab the root hub device improperly.
+# Greg Kroah-Hartman, 27 Oct 2000
+LINK_FIRST := usb.o
# Multipart objects.
list-multi := usbcore.o
@@ -98,6 +110,10 @@ int-m := $(sort $(foreach m, $(multi-m)
obj-m := $(filter-out $(obj-y), $(obj-m))
int-m := $(filter-out $(int-y), $(int-m))
+# Take multi-part drivers out of obj-y and put components in.
+obj-y := $(filter-out $(list-multi), $(obj-y)) $(int-y)
# Translate to Rules.make lists.
--- 0-test10-pre6.1/Rules.make Tue, 19 Sep 2000 10:36:07 +1100 kaos (linux-2.4/B/c/24_Rules.make 188.8.131.52 644)
+++ 0-test10-pre6.1(w)/Rules.make Mon, 30 Oct 2000 08:49:58 +1100 kaos (linux-2.4/B/c/24_Rules.make 184.108.40.206 644)
@@ -31,6 +31,9 @@ unexport LX_OBJS
+# Control link order, added 29 Oct 2000 Keith Owens <[email protected]>
# Get things started.
@@ -84,8 +87,19 @@ all_targets: $(O_TARGET) $(L_TARGET)
# Rule to compile a set of .o files into one .o file
+# Note: if LINK_FIRST or LINK_LAST are specified, the rest of the
+# object files are sorted to remove duplicates. Thus, if you use
+# LINK_FIRST/LAST, make sure they specify all ordering requirements.
-ALL_O = $(OX_OBJS) $(O_OBJS)
+ ALL_O = $(OX_OBJS) $(O_OBJS)
+ ifneq ($(strip $(LINK_FIRST)$(LINK_LAST)),)
+ ALL_O := $(sort $(ALL_O))
+ ALL_O := \
+ $(filter $(ALL_O), $(LINK_FIRST)) \
+ $(filter-out $(LINK_FIRST) $(LINK_LAST), $(ALL_O)) \
+ $(filter $(ALL_O), $(LINK_LAST))
rm -f [email protected]
ifneq "$(strip $(ALL_O))" ""
--- 0-test10-pre6.1/Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt Mon, 02 Oct 2000 15:28:44 +1100 kaos (linux-2.4/b/d/12_makefiles. 1.3 644)
+++ 0-test10-pre6.1(w)/Documentation/kbuild/makefiles.txt Mon, 30 Oct 2000 08:52:03 +1100 kaos (linux-2.4/b/d/12_makefiles. 1.3 644)
@@ -1,6 +1,9 @@
Linux Kernel Makefiles
Michael Elizabeth Chastain, <[email protected]>
+LINK_FIRST/LAST Keith Owens <[email protected]>,
+ Peter Samuelson <[email protected]>
@@ -319,7 +322,7 @@ architecture-specific values.
SUBDIRS := $(SUBDIRS) arch/alpha/kernel arch/alpha/mm \
- arch/alpha/lib arch/alpha/math-emu
+ arch/alpha/lib arch/alpha/math-emu
This list may depend on the configuration:
@@ -656,12 +659,17 @@ The public interface of Rules.make consi
with the name $(O_TARGET). This $(O_TARGET) name also appears
in the top Makefile.
- The order of files in $(O_OBJS) and $(OX_OBJS) is significant.
- All $(OX_OBJS) files come first, in the order listed, followed by
- all $(O_OBJS) files, in the order listed. Duplicates in the lists
- are allowed: the first instance will be linked into $(O_TARGET)
- and succeeding instances will be ignored. (Note: Rules.make may
- emit warning messages for duplicates, but this is harmless).
+ Even if a subdirectory Makefile has an $(O_TARGET), the .config
+ options still control whether or not its $(O_TARGET) goes into
+ vmlinux. See the $(M_OBJS) example below.
+ If neither $(LINK_FIRST) nor $(LINK_LAST) are defined, the order of
+ files in $(O_OBJS) and $(OX_OBJS) is significant. All $(OX_OBJS)
+ files come first, in the order listed, followed by all $(O_OBJS)
+ files, in the order listed. Duplicates in the lists are allowed:
+ the first instance will be linked into $(O_TARGET) and succeeding
+ instances will be ignored. (Note: Rules.make may emit warning
+ messages for duplicates, but this is harmless).
@@ -680,9 +688,61 @@ The public interface of Rules.make consi
O_OBJS += pci.o pci_iommu.o
- Even if a subdirectory Makefile has an $(O_TARGET), the .config
- options still control whether or not its $(O_TARGET) goes into
- vmlinux. See the $(M_OBJS) example below.
+ If either $(LINK_FIRST) or $(LINK_LAST) are defined, the order of
+ files in $(O_OBJS) and $(OX_OBJS) is ignored. Instead the files are
+ linked in the order $(LINK_FIRST), the rest, $(LINK_LAST). The
+ order of entries in $(LINK_FIRST) and $(LINK_LAST) is preserved
+ exactly as specified. The order of the rest of the files is
+ undefined; currently it is alphabetical, but you must not rely on
+ this. When either $(LINK_FIRST) or $(LINK_LAST) are defined, they
+ must satisfy all possible ordering requirements for the
+ corresponding $(O_TARGET).
+ The only justification for $(LINK_FIRST) and $(LINK_LAST) is to
+ control the order of initialization routines. Routines which are
+ defined as __initcall or module_init and are linked into the kernel
+ will be executed during kernel startup in the order they were
+ Use $(LINK_FIRST) to ensure that certain routines, if present, are
+ executed before all others in the current directory. For example,
+ usb_init() in usb.c must be executed before all other usb
+ initialization routines:
+ # drivers/usb/Makefile
+ LINK_FIRST := usb.o
+ Use $(LINK_LAST) to ensure that initialization routines, if present,
+ are executed after all other such routines in the current directory.
+ Typically this is needed where you have multiple drivers that can
+ recognise a piece of hardware and you want the older drivers to be
+ tried last. For example, SCSI card `foo' can be controlled by
+ drivers bar.o and baz.o but baz.o is preferred, if present.
+ ``LINK_LAST := bar.o'' will ensure that the initialization routines
+ in bar.o are tried last.
+ [Note that the only way to control the kernel link order *between*
+ directories is by manipulating variables such as $(DRIVERS-y) in the
+ toplevel Makefile. This has directory-level granularity; if
+ finer-grained control is needed, you must use a workaround. Such
+ cases should be rare, if they exist at all.]
+ $(LINK_FIRST) and $(LINK_LAST) must not contain any duplicate object
+ names. For this reason, you should define them unconditionally,
+ i.e. they should not depend on the kernel configuration. They do
+ not need to, because they only affect the link order, not the actual
+ list of objects linked to $(O_TARGET). In other words, if an object
+ appears in $(LINK_FIRST) or $(LINK_LAST) but does not appear in
+ $(O_OBJS) or $(OX_OBJS), it is ignored.
+ All uses of $(LINK_FIRST) and $(LINK_LAST) must be justified and
+ fully documented in the Makefile. Historically, entries in
+ Makefiles were manually ordered with no documentation. This is
+ unfortunate because now, in some cases, we cannot be sure whether a
+ particular ordering is by chance or by necessity -- or, if by
+ necessity, what the reason was. This lack of critical information
+ is unacceptable. See drivers/usb/Makefile for an example of the
+ level of detail required.