2008-08-17 00:50:05

by Quentin Barnes

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: nfs_file_flush() question

I've been coming up to speed on the NFS protocol and its NFS client
support in Linux. I've been comparing performance of NFS on RHEL4
and RHEL5 vs. FreeBSD 6.2. (Okay, we're on an old base, but I don't
think it matters here for this question.)

In watching the NFS protocols fly back and forth between BSD
and Linux clients to an NFS server, I noticed that Linux is
doing an extra GETATTR over FreeBSD when closing a read-write
file. I tracked this back to nfs_file_flush() which is
doing a __nfs_revalidate_inode() (or in current kernels
nfs_revalidate_inode()). Why do we want nfs_file_flush() to force
a revalidate of an inode we're closing? Why not instead just
invalidate the inode's attribute?

I looked at the FreeBSD 6.2 code. In its nfs_close(), it does an
"np->n_attrstamp = 0;" to invalidate the inode's attribute cache.

The current Linux kernel code in question in nfs_file_flush() is:
==========
/* Ensure that data+attribute caches are up to date after close() */
status = nfs_do_fsync(ctx, inode);
if (!status)
nfs_revalidate_inode(NFS_SERVER(inode), inode);
==========

I would imagine this better as:
==========
/* Ensure that data+attribute caches are up to date after close() */
status = nfs_do_fsync(ctx, inode);
if (!status && !(NFS_SERVER(inode)->flags & NFS_MOUNT_NOCTO))
NFS_I(inode)->cache_validity |= NFS_INO_INVALID_ATTR;
==========

Is there a reason I'm missing that the revalidate and GETATTR are
required?

Quentin


2008-08-20 03:39:45

by Quentin Barnes

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: nfs_file_flush() question

On Tue, Aug 19, 2008 at 05:30:52PM -0700, Trond Myklebust wrote:
> On Tue, 2008-08-19 at 15:17 -0500, Quentin Barnes wrote:
> > > If I don't know the correct mtime attribute of the file when I close it,
> >
> > If I follow the code, you do know the mtime when closing the
> > file. With V3, from the WRITE and COMMIT, you're given weak cache
> > consistency data containing the the updated mtimes, correct?
>
> No. Please note the difference between a call to nfs_update_inode(), and
> a call to nfs_refresh_inode(). The latter tries to be more careful about
> updating the inode attributes if there is a chance that we may have
> raced with another RPC call to the same inode, and hence that the
> attributes returned may be stale.
>
> > But making the change to nfs_revalidate_inode() by itself only
> > helps in the case where the file was open O_RDWR and no write(2)
> > was done. The code still needed to be updated to use the WCC data
> > at the right time. In the older kernels when nfs_wb_all() ended up
> > calling nfs_update_inode() which was clearing the cache when it saw
> > the mtime change from the WRITE. I tracked down why. Newer kernels
> > (2.6.24 and later) had nfs_post_op_update_inode_force_wcc() call
> > added to nfs3_write_done() which updated the inode with the WCC data
> > from the WRITE so the later call to nfs_update_inode() didn't see
> > an unexpected mtime change flagging the attribute and data cache as
> > invalid.
>
> See above.

I'm not sure I'm following what you mean. What I wrote in the
second part is what's happening from watching the traces. I may not
have gotten the exact call chain right, but the end result is what's
going on. I'll go into more detail.

But what I'm wondering is what exactly is wrong. Is it my
understanding or something in my analysis? Are you indicating
that the 2.6.24 kernel and later are misbehaving since they don't
invalidate the caches and do a GETATTR?

Here's a debug trace on a 2.6.24 kernel of a process doing an
open(2), write(2), and close(2):
======
NFS: permission(0:14/33685649), mask=0x1, res=0
NFS: nfs_lookup_revalidate(/.xtest1) is valid
NFS: permission(0:14/33686480), mask=0x6, res=0
nfs: write(/.xtest1(33686480), [email protected])
NFS: nfs_updatepage(/.xtest1 [email protected])
NFS: nfs_updatepage returns 0 (isize 23)
nfs: flush(0:14/33686480)
*nfs: flush pre-nfs_do_fsync cache_validity = 0x00000000
NFS: 0 initiated write call (req 0:14/33686480, 23 bytes @ offset 0)
NFS: 38 nfs_writeback_done (status 23)
NFS: nfs_update_inode(0:14/33686480 ct=2 info=0x7)
NFS: write (0:14/33686480 [email protected]) marked for commit
NFS: 0 initiated commit call
NFS: 39 nfs_commit_done (status 0)
NFS: nfs_update_inode(0:14/33686480 ct=2 info=0x6)
NFS: commit (0:14/33686480 [email protected]) OK
*nfs: flush post-nfs_do_fsync cache_validity = 0x00000000
NFS: dentry_delete(/.xtest1, 8)
======

I added some extra debug of my own just before and after the call to
nfs_do_fsync() in nfs_file_flush(). I noted them with "*"s. Note
that after the commit, the attribute and data cache are still valid
with 2.6.24 (cache_validity is still 0x0, so nothing's invalidated).
When that's the case, there is no GETATTR call.

Now the same thing on 2.6.9:
======
nfs: flush(0:13/33686480)
*nfs: flush pre-nfs_wb_all cache_validity = 0x00000000
NFS: 103 initiated write call (req 0:13/33686480, 23 bytes @ offset 0)
NFS: nfs_update_inode(0:13/33686480 ct=2 info=0x6)
NFS: mtime change on server for file 0:13/33686480
NFS: 103 nfs_writeback_done (status 23)
NFS: write (0:13/33686480 [email protected]) marked for commit
NFS: 104 initiated commit call
NFS: nfs_update_inode(0:13/33686480 ct=2 info=0x6)
NFS: 104 nfs_commit_done (status 0)
NFS: commit (0:13/33686480 [email protected]) OK
*nfs: flush post-nfs_wb_all cache_validity = 0x0000001b
NFS: revalidating (0:13/33686480)
NFS call getattr
NFS reply getattr
NFS: nfs_update_inode(0:13/33686480 ct=1 info=0x6)
NFS: (0:13/33686480) data cache invalidated
NFS: nfs3_forget_cached_acls(0:13/33686480)
NFS: (0:13/33686480) revalidation complete
NFS: dentry_delete(//.xtest1, 0)
======

The extra debug this time is around the nfs_wb_all() call. As you
can see during the flush the attribute and data caches get marked
invalid (cache_validity goes from 0x0 to 0x1b) so a GETATTR call is
made. In nfs_update_inode(), it tells us why it happened, "mtime
change on server for file" which does not happen on 2.6.24.

I ported over the nfs_post_op_update_inode_force_wcc() function
to 2.6.9 and hooked it into the *write_done() functions and that
got rid of the "mtime change on server for file" message from
nfs_update_inode() on that kernel.

Is 2.6.24 doing the right thing?

> Cheers
> Trond

Quentin

2008-08-17 17:04:06

by Trond Myklebust

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: nfs_file_flush() question

On Sat, 2008-08-16 at 19:23 -0500, Quentin Barnes wrote:
> I've been coming up to speed on the NFS protocol and its NFS client
> support in Linux. I've been comparing performance of NFS on RHEL4
> and RHEL5 vs. FreeBSD 6.2. (Okay, we're on an old base, but I don't
> think it matters here for this question.)
>
> In watching the NFS protocols fly back and forth between BSD
> and Linux clients to an NFS server, I noticed that Linux is
> doing an extra GETATTR over FreeBSD when closing a read-write
> file. I tracked this back to nfs_file_flush() which is
> doing a __nfs_revalidate_inode() (or in current kernels
> nfs_revalidate_inode()). Why do we want nfs_file_flush() to force
> a revalidate of an inode we're closing? Why not instead just
> invalidate the inode's attribute?
>
> I looked at the FreeBSD 6.2 code. In its nfs_close(), it does an
> "np->n_attrstamp = 0;" to invalidate the inode's attribute cache.
>
> The current Linux kernel code in question in nfs_file_flush() is:
> ==========
> /* Ensure that data+attribute caches are up to date after close() */
> status = nfs_do_fsync(ctx, inode);
> if (!status)
> nfs_revalidate_inode(NFS_SERVER(inode), inode);
> ==========
>
> I would imagine this better as:
> ==========
> /* Ensure that data+attribute caches are up to date after close() */
> status = nfs_do_fsync(ctx, inode);
> if (!status && !(NFS_SERVER(inode)->flags & NFS_MOUNT_NOCTO))
> NFS_I(inode)->cache_validity |= NFS_INO_INVALID_ATTR;
> ==========
>
> Is there a reason I'm missing that the revalidate and GETATTR are
> required?

Yes: It is required for correct close-to-open cache consistency
semantics.

If I don't know the correct mtime attribute of the file when I close it,
then I can't compare it with the mtime of the file when I open it again.
If so, close-to-open semantics forbid me from assuming that my cached
data is still valid, and so I have to throw out the entire page cache
contents for that file.

Cheers
Trond


2008-08-18 16:04:26

by Chuck Lever III

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: nfs_file_flush() question

On Aug 17, 2008, at 1:04 PM, Trond Myklebust wrote:
> On Sat, 2008-08-16 at 19:23 -0500, Quentin Barnes wrote:
>> I've been coming up to speed on the NFS protocol and its NFS client
>> support in Linux. I've been comparing performance of NFS on RHEL4
>> and RHEL5 vs. FreeBSD 6.2. (Okay, we're on an old base, but I don't
>> think it matters here for this question.)
>>
>> In watching the NFS protocols fly back and forth between BSD
>> and Linux clients to an NFS server, I noticed that Linux is
>> doing an extra GETATTR over FreeBSD when closing a read-write
>> file. I tracked this back to nfs_file_flush() which is
>> doing a __nfs_revalidate_inode() (or in current kernels
>> nfs_revalidate_inode()). Why do we want nfs_file_flush() to force
>> a revalidate of an inode we're closing? Why not instead just
>> invalidate the inode's attribute?
>>
>> I looked at the FreeBSD 6.2 code. In its nfs_close(), it does an
>> "np->n_attrstamp = 0;" to invalidate the inode's attribute cache.
>>
>> The current Linux kernel code in question in nfs_file_flush() is:
>> ==========
>> /* Ensure that data+attribute caches are up to date after close()
>> */
>> status = nfs_do_fsync(ctx, inode);
>> if (!status)
>> nfs_revalidate_inode(NFS_SERVER(inode), inode);
>> ==========
>>
>> I would imagine this better as:
>> ==========
>> /* Ensure that data+attribute caches are up to date after close()
>> */
>> status = nfs_do_fsync(ctx, inode);
>> if (!status && !(NFS_SERVER(inode)->flags & NFS_MOUNT_NOCTO))
>> NFS_I(inode)->cache_validity |= NFS_INO_INVALID_ATTR;
>> ==========
>>
>> Is there a reason I'm missing that the revalidate and GETATTR are
>> required?
>
> Yes: It is required for correct close-to-open cache consistency
> semantics.
>
> If I don't know the correct mtime attribute of the file when I close
> it,
> then I can't compare it with the mtime of the file when I open it
> again.
> If so, close-to-open semantics forbid me from assuming that my cached
> data is still valid, and so I have to throw out the entire page cache
> contents for that file.

For NFSv3, a WRITE operation can return post-op attributes which
reflect the updated mtime on the server. In that case, we get the
updated mtime for free, and don't need the additional GETATTR.

However, there are corner cases:

1. The client had to send multiple WRITEs to finish flushing the
file's dirty data, and the replies returned out of order. In this
case, the client can't know which mtime is the final value.

2. The server chose not to return post-op attributes.

Does the Linux NFS client optimize away the GETATTR when it has sent
only a single WRITE and the server has returned post-op attributes?
Using a large wsize with a modern server implementation might make
this a fairly common scenario.

--
Chuck Lever
chuck[dot]lever[at]oracle[dot]com

2008-08-18 16:53:17

by Trond Myklebust

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: nfs_file_flush() question

On Mon, 2008-08-18 at 12:04 -0400, Chuck Lever wrote:
> Does the Linux NFS client optimize away the GETATTR when it has sent
> only a single WRITE and the server has returned post-op attributes?
> Using a large wsize with a modern server implementation might make
> this a fairly common scenario.

Yes: please see the code. We use a standard nfs_revalidate_inode() which
will be optimised away if the inode metadata is known to be up to date.

Trond


2008-08-19 20:20:33

by Quentin Barnes

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: nfs_file_flush() question

On Sun, Aug 17, 2008 at 10:04:01AM -0700, Trond Myklebust wrote:
> On Sat, 2008-08-16 at 19:23 -0500, Quentin Barnes wrote:
> > I've been coming up to speed on the NFS protocol and its NFS client
> > support in Linux. I've been comparing performance of NFS on RHEL4
> > and RHEL5 vs. FreeBSD 6.2. (Okay, we're on an old base, but I don't
> > think it matters here for this question.)

Oops. I goofed in my assumption. There is a notable difference
between the older kernels and the newer kernels in this regards.

[...]
> > Is there a reason I'm missing that the revalidate and GETATTR are
> > required?
>
> Yes: It is required for correct close-to-open cache consistency
> semantics.
>
> If I don't know the correct mtime attribute of the file when I close it,

If I follow the code, you do know the mtime when closing the
file. With V3, from the WRITE and COMMIT, you're given weak cache
consistency data containing the the updated mtimes, correct?

I'm still learning the NFS protocol, so I know I don't fully
understand when and how the WCC is utilized in the kernel, so I
probably have something wrong.

> then I can't compare it with the mtime of the file when I open it again.
> If so, close-to-open semantics forbid me from assuming that my cached
> data is still valid, and so I have to throw out the entire page cache
> contents for that file.

I watched a 2.6.24 kernel I had lying around. It never does a
GETATTR anymore during closing a file.

The older kernels invalidated the attribute cache as part of
nfs_file_flush()'s write/commit step. The newer kernels still leave
the attribute or data cache marked as valid post-write and commit.
(More below).

If the nocto mount flag is used, the only difference is the GETATTR
on open(2) is avoided.

On Mon, Aug 18, 2008 at 09:53:11AM -0700, Trond Myklebust wrote:
> On Mon, 2008-08-18 at 12:04 -0400, Chuck Lever wrote:
> > Does the Linux NFS client optimize away the GETATTR when it has sent
> > only a single WRITE and the server has returned post-op attributes?
> > Using a large wsize with a modern server implementation might make
> > this a fairly common scenario.
>
> Yes: please see the code. We use a standard nfs_revalidate_inode() which
> will be optimised away if the inode metadata is known to be up to date.

That's what I found. There was two pieces to that change.
The first was in nfs_file_flush() changing the call from
__nfs_revalidate_inode() to nfs_revalidate_inode() in 2.6.15 so the
always forced GETATTR could be optimized out when the attribute
cache was still valid and hadn't timed out.

But making the change to nfs_revalidate_inode() by itself only
helps in the case where the file was open O_RDWR and no write(2)
was done. The code still needed to be updated to use the WCC data
at the right time. In the older kernels when nfs_wb_all() ended up
calling nfs_update_inode() which was clearing the cache when it saw
the mtime change from the WRITE. I tracked down why. Newer kernels
(2.6.24 and later) had nfs_post_op_update_inode_force_wcc() call
added to nfs3_write_done() which updated the inode with the WCC data
from the WRITE so the later call to nfs_update_inode() didn't see
an unexpected mtime change flagging the attribute and data cache as
invalid.

At least that's my current understanding from reading through the
code for the last couple of days and comparing older and newer
kernels. Please correct me where I'm wrong.

> Cheers
> Trond

Quentin

2008-08-20 00:30:57

by Trond Myklebust

[permalink] [raw]
Subject: Re: nfs_file_flush() question

On Tue, 2008-08-19 at 15:17 -0500, Quentin Barnes wrote:
> > If I don't know the correct mtime attribute of the file when I close it,
>
> If I follow the code, you do know the mtime when closing the
> file. With V3, from the WRITE and COMMIT, you're given weak cache
> consistency data containing the the updated mtimes, correct?

No. Please note the difference between a call to nfs_update_inode(), and
a call to nfs_refresh_inode(). The latter tries to be more careful about
updating the inode attributes if there is a chance that we may have
raced with another RPC call to the same inode, and hence that the
attributes returned may be stale.

> But making the change to nfs_revalidate_inode() by itself only
> helps in the case where the file was open O_RDWR and no write(2)
> was done. The code still needed to be updated to use the WCC data
> at the right time. In the older kernels when nfs_wb_all() ended up
> calling nfs_update_inode() which was clearing the cache when it saw
> the mtime change from the WRITE. I tracked down why. Newer kernels
> (2.6.24 and later) had nfs_post_op_update_inode_force_wcc() call
> added to nfs3_write_done() which updated the inode with the WCC data
> from the WRITE so the later call to nfs_update_inode() didn't see
> an unexpected mtime change flagging the attribute and data cache as
> invalid.

See above.

Cheers
Trond